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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0932    [Accepted] Published online April 13, 2020.
Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tosa-Jidori sheds light on the origin and evolution of Japanese native chickens
Sayed A.-M. Osman1,2  , Masahide Nishibori1  , Takahiro Yonezawa3,* 
1Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Department of Animal Life Science, Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739–8528, Japan
2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, El Minia, Eg-61517, Egypt
3Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako 1737, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan
Correspondence:  Takahiro Yonezawa, Tel: +862155665264, Fax: +862155665264, Email: cyclotis@gmail.com
Received: 4 December 2019   • Revised: 20 February 2020   • Accepted: 9 April 2020
In Japan, approximately 50 breeds of indigenous domestic chicken, called Japanese native chickens (JNCs), have been developed. JNCs gradually became established based on three major original groups, “Jidori”, “Shoukoku” and “Shamo”. Tosa-Jidori is a breed of Jidori, and archival records as well as its morphologically primitive characters suggest an ancient origin. Although Jidori is thought to have been introduced from East Asia, a previous study based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences demonstrated that Tosa-Jidori belongs to haplogroup D, which is abundant in Southeast Asia but rare in other regions, and a Southeast Asian origin for Tosa-Jidori was therefore suggested. The relatively small size of the D-loop region offers limited resolution in comparison with mitogenome phylogeny. This study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic position of the Tosa-Jidori breed based on complete mitochondrial D-loop and mitogenome sequences, and to clarify its evolutionary relationships, possible maternal origin and routes of introduction into Japan.
Maximum parsimony trees were based on 133 chickens and consisted of 86 mitogenome sequences as well as 47 D-loop sequences.
This is the first report of the complete mitogenome not only for the Tosa-Jidori breed, but also for a member of one of the three major original groups of JNCs. Our phylogenetic analysis based on D-loop and mitogenome sequences suggests that Tosa-Jidori individuals characterized in this study belong to the haplogroup D as well as the sub-haplogroup E1.
The sub-haplogroup E1 is relatively common in East Asia, and so although the Southeast Asian origin hypothesis cannot be rejected, East Asia is another possible origin of Tosa-Jidori. This study highlights the complicated origin and breeding history of Tosa-Jidori and other JNC breeds.
Keywords: D-loop; Jidori; Mitogenome; Phylogeny; Chicken; Gallus gallus

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