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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0945    [Accepted] Published online March 12, 2020.
Importance of micronutrients in bone health of monogastric animals and techniques to improve the bioavailability of micronutrient supplements: a review
Santi Devi Upadhaya1  , In Ho Kim1,* 
Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, 330-714, Korea
Correspondence:  In Ho Kim, Tel: +82-011-9803-9598, Fax: +82-041-553-1618, Email: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr
Received: 10 December 2019   • Revised: 30 January 2020   • Accepted: 9 March 2020
Abstract
Vitamins and minerals categorized as micronutrients are the essential components of animal feed for maintaining health and improving immunity. Micronutrients are important bioactive molecules and cofactors of enzymes as well. Besides being cofactors for enzymes, some vitamins such as the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin A and D have been shown to exhibit hormone-like functions. Although they are required in small amount, they play an influential role in the proper functioning of a number of enzymes which are involved in many metabolic, biochemical and physiological processes that contribute to growth, production and health. Micronutrients can potentially have a positive impact on bone health, preventing bone loss and fractures, decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. Thus, micronutrients must be provided to livestock in optimal concentrations and according to requirements that change during the rapid growth and development of the animal and the production cycle. The supply of nutrients to the animal body not only depends on the amount of the nutrient in a food, but also on its bioavailability. The bioavailability of these micronutrients is affected by several factors. Therefore, several technologies such as nanoparticle, encapsulation, and chelation have been developed to improve the bioavailability of micronutrients associated with bone health. The intention of this review is to provide an updated overview of the importance of micronutrients on bone health and methods applied to improve their bioavailability.
Keywords: Bone Health; Bioavailability; Micronutrient; Minerals; Vitamins
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