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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0933    [Accepted] Published online April 15, 2019.
Characteristics of proteolytic microorganisms and their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration silages of soybean curd residue
Wei Hao1,2, Pengjiao Tian1, Mingli Zheng1, Huili Wang1, Chuncheng Xu1,*
1College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2State Key Laboratory of Feed Microbial Engineering, Beijing Da Bei Nong Science and Technology Group Co., Ltd., Beijing, China
Correspondence:  Chuncheng Xu, Tel: +86-10-62736480, Fax: +86-10-62737997, Email: xucc@cau.edu.cn
Received: 11 December 2018   • Revised: 12 February 2019   • Accepted: 28 March 2019
The objective of this study was to isolate proteolytic microorganisms and evaluate their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration (TMR) silages of soybean curd residue.
TMRs were formulated with soybean curd residue, alfalfa or Leymus chinensis hay, corn meal, soybean meal, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 25.0:40.0:30.0:4.0:0.5:0.5, respectively, on a basis of dry matter (DM). The microbial proteinases during ensiling were characterized, the dominate strains associated with proteolysis were identified, and their enzymatic characterization were evaluated in alfalfa (A-TMR) and Leymus chinensis (L-TMR) TMR silages containing soybean curd residue.
Both A-TMR and L-TMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic bacteria and yeast counts in both TMR silages decreased to about 105 cfu g-1 FM (Fresh matter) and below the detection limit, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria count increased to 109 cfu g-1 FM. The total microbial proteinases activities reached their maximums during the early ensiling stage and then reduced in both TMR silages with fermentation prolonged. Metalloproteinase was the main proteinase when the total proteinases activities reached their maximums, and when ensiling terminated, metallo and serine proteinases played equally important parts in proteolysis in both TMR silages. Strains in the genera Curtobacterium and Paenibacillus were identified as the most dominant proteolytic bacteria in A-TMR and L-TMR, respectively, and both their proteinases were mainly with metalloproteinase characteristics. In the latter ensiling phase, Enterococcus faecium strains became the major sources of proteolytic enzymes in both TMR silages. Their proteinases were mainly of metallo and serine proteinases classes in this experiment.
Proteolytic aerobic bacteria were substituted by proteolytic lactic acid bacteria during ensiling, and the microbial serine and metallo proteinases in these strains played leading roles in proteolysis in TMR silages.
Keywords: Aerobic Bacteria; Lactic Acid Bacteria; Proteolysis; Proteinase; Total Mixed Ration Silage

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