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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Epub ahead of print
[Epub ahead of print] Published online July 26, 2018.
Physiochemical characteristics and fermentation ability of milk from Czech Fleckvieh cows are related to genetic polymorphisms of β-casein, κ-casein, and β-lactoglobulin
Jitka Kyselová1,*  , Kateřina Ječmínková1  , Jitka Matějíčková2, Oto Hanuš3  , Tomáš Kott1, Miloslava Štípková1, Michaela Krejčová1
1Institute of Animal Science, Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, 104 00 Prague, Czech Republic
2Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy, 508 01 Hořice, Czech Republic
3Dairy Research Institute, 160 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Correspondence:  Jitka Kyselová, Tel: +42-0-267-009-560, Fax: +42-0-267-710-779, Email: kyselova.jitka@vuzv.cz
Received: 22 December 2017   • Revised: 11 May 2018   • Accepted: 7 June 2018
Abstract
Objective
The aim of the study was to find a possible association between the <i>β</i>- and <i>κ</i>-casein and <i>β</i>-lactoglobulin genotypes and important milk physiochemical and technological characteristics such as acidity, alcohol stability, the contents of some minerals and the parameters of acid fermentation ability (FEA) in Czech Fleckvieh Cattle.
Methods
Milk and blood samples were collected from 338 primiparous Czech Fleckvieh cows at the same stage of lactation. The genotypes of individual cows for <i>κ</i>-casein (alleles <i>A</i>, <i>B</i>, and <i>E</i>) and <i>β</i>-lactoglobulin (alleles <i>A</i> and <i>B</i>) were ascertained by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while their <i>β</i>-casein (alleles <i>A</i><sup>1</sup>, <i>A</i><sup>2</sup>, <i>A</i><sup>3</sup>, and B) genotype was determined using melting curve genotyping analysis. The data collected were i) milk traits including active acidity (pH), titratable acidity (TA), alcohol stability (AS); calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) contents; and ii) yoghurt traits including active acidity (Y-pH), titratable acidity (Y-TA), and the counts of both <i>Lactobacilli</i> and <i>Streptococci</i> in 1 mL of yoghurt. A linear model was assumed with fixed effects of herd, year, and season of calving, an effect of the age of the cow at first calving and effects of the casein and lactoglobulin genotypes of <i>β</i>-CN (<i>β</i>-casein, <i>CSN2</i>), <i>κ</i>-CN (<i>κ</i>-casein, <i>CSN3</i>), and <i>β</i>-LG (<i>β</i>-lactoglobulin, <i>LGB</i>), or the three-way interaction between those genes.
Results
The genetic polymorphisms were related to the milk TA, AS, content of P and Ca, Y-pH and <i>Lactobacilli</i> number in the fresh yoghurt. The <i>CSN3</i> genotype was significantly associated with milk AS (p<0.05). The effect of the composite <i>CSN2</i>-<i>CSN3</i>-<i>LGB</i> genotype on the investigated traits mostly reflected the effects of the individual genes. It significantly influenced TA (p<0.01), Y-pH (p<0.05) and the log of the <i>Lactobacilli</i> count (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that the yoghurt fermentation test together with milk proteins genotyping could contribute to milk quality control and highlight new perspectives in dairy cattle selection.
Keywords: Acid Fermentation; Cattle; Genotype; Milk Acidity; Milk Protein


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