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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0282    [Accepted] Published online May 31, 2018.
Evaluation of in vitro ruminal fermentation of ensiled fruit byproducts and their potential for feed use (resubmission)
Shimaa A Mousa1, Pradeep K Malik2, Atul P Kolte P Kolte2, Raghavendra Bhatta2, Shigemitsu Kasuga1, Yutaka Uyeno1,*
1Shinshu University, Japan, Nagano, Japan
2National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bengaluru, India
Correspondence:  Yutaka Uyeno, Tel: +81265771650, Fax: N/A, Email: ytkuyeno@shinshu-u.ac.jp
Received: 12 April 2018   • Revised: 27 April 2018   • Accepted: 24 May 2018
Abstract
Objective: Ensiling of tannin-rich fruit byproducts (FB) involves quantitative and qualitative changes in the tannins, which would consequently change the rumen fermentation characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate whether ensiled FBs are effective in mitigating methane emission from ruminants by conducting in vitro assessments.

Methods

Fruit byproducts (grape pomace, wild grape pomace, and persimmon skin) were collected and subjected to four-week ensiling by Lactobacillus buchneri inoculant. A defined feed component with or without FB samples (both fresh and ensiled material) were subjected to in vitro anaerobic culturing using rumen fluid sampled from beef cattle, and the fermentation parameters and microbial populations were monitored.

Results

Reduced methane production and a proportional change in total volatile fatty acids (especially enhanced propionate proportion) was noted in bottles containing the FBs compared with that in the control (without FB). In addition, we found lower gene copy number of archaeal 16S rRNA and considerably higher levels of one of the major fibrolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes) in the bottles containing FBs than in the control, particularly, when it was included in a forage-based feed. However, in the following cultivation experiment, we observed that FBs failed to exhibit a significant difference in methane production with or without polyethylene glycol, implying that tannins in the FBs may not be responsible for the mitigation of methane generation.
Conclusion
The results of the in vitro cultivation experiments indicated that not only the composition but also ensiling of FBs affected rumen fermentation patterns and the degree of methane generation. This is primarily because of the compositional changes in the fibrous fraction during ensiling as well as the presence of readily fermented substrates, whereas tannins in these FBs seemed to have little effect on the ruminal fermentation kinetics.
Keywords: Fruit byproducts; Ensiling; Methane; Tannin
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