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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 31(7); 2018 > Article
Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2018;31(7): 1043-1061.
DOI:    Published online May 31, 2018.
Genetic, management, and nutritional factors affecting intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle — A review
Seung Ju Park1  , Seok-Hyeon Beak1  , Da Jin Sol Jung1  , Sang Yeob Kim1  , In Hyuk Jeong1  , Min Yu Piao1  , Hyeok Joong Kang1  , Dilla Mareistia Fassah1  , Sang Weon Na1  , Seon Pil Yoo1  , Myunggi Baik1,2,* 
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2Institutes of Green Bio Science Technology, Pyeongchang 25354, Korea
Correspondence:  Myunggi Baik, Tel: +82-2-880-4809, Fax: +82-2-873-2271, Email:
Received: 19 April 2018   • Revised: 4 May 2018   • Accepted: 10 May 2018
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in skeletal muscle including the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM), also known as marbling fat, is one of the most important factors determining beef quality in several countries including Korea, Japan, Australia, and the United States. Genetics and breed, management, and nutrition affect IMF deposition. Japanese Black cattle breed has the highest IMF content in the world, and Korean cattle (also called Hanwoo) the second highest. Here, we review results of research on genetic factors (breed and sex differences and heritability) that affect IMF deposition. Cattle management factors are also important for IMF deposition. Castration of bulls increases IMF deposition in most cattle breeds. The effects of several management factors, including weaning age, castration, slaughter weight and age, and environmental conditions on IMF deposition are also reviewed. Nutritional factors, including fat metabolism, digestion and absorption of feed, glucose/starch availability, and vitamin A, D, and C levels are important for IMF deposition. Manipulating IMF deposition through developmental programming via metabolic imprinting is a recently proposed nutritional method to change potential IMF deposition during the fetal and neonatal periods in rodents and domestic animals. Application of fetal nutritional programming to increase IMF deposition of progeny in later life is reviewed. The coordination of several factors affects IMF deposition. Thus, a combination of several strategies may be needed to manipulate IMF deposition, depending on the consumer’s beef preference. In particular, stage-specific feeding programs with concentrate-based diets developed by Japan and Korea are described in this article.
Keywords: Beef Cattle; Intramuscular Fat Deposition; Genetic Factors; Management; Nutrition

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