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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0327    [Accepted] Published online November 3, 2017.
Phylogenetic relationship and variation among four strains of Small East African goats of Tanzania based on mitochondrial DNA
Athumani Shabani Nguluma1,*, George Msalya1, Charles Moses Lyimo1, Yongfu Huang2, Yongju Zhao2, Lipen Chen2, Guangxin E2, Sebastian Willson Chenyambuga1
1Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
2College of Animal Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage & Herbivore, Chongqing Engineering Research Centre for Herbivores Resource Protection and Utilization, Southwest University, Chongqing, China
Correspondence:  Athumani Shabani Nguluma, Tel: +255 023 2604617, Fax: +255 023 2604562, Email: asnguluma@yahoo.com
Received: 27 April 2017   • Revised: 11 August 2017   • Accepted: 22 October 2017
Abstract
Objective
This study was conducted to determine the origin and phylogeography of four strains of Small East African (SEA) goat breed namely Pare, Gogo, Sonjo, and Sukuma.
Methods
About 586 bp sequences of the first hypervariable (HV1) region within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D – loop) were analyzed in 142 individuals from SEA goat as well as Boer goat as reference breed. In addition, goat sequences from eight other African countries from the NCBI database were used for comparison.
Results
A total of 154 polymorphic sites and 102 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes ranged from 12 to 27 in Boer and Sonjo goats, respectively. Haplotype diversity ranged from 0.873 ± 0.039 (in Boer) to 0.994 ± 0.013 (in Gogo goats). The largest number of nucleotide diversity was found in Pare strain (0.030 ± 0.007) and the lowest in Gogo and Sonjo (0.023 ± 0.003). Three maternal haplogroups, A, B1B, and G were detected; haplogroup A being the most predominant with 116 individuals and 85 haplotypes. There was sharing of haplotypes among the Tanzania SEA goats, and the Kenya goats but not with goats from other African countries. Demographic expansion was detected in all SEA goat strains whereas background selection occurred only in Pare goats.
Conclusion
The SEA and Boer goats have multiple maternal origins and are highly diverse from each other, though not strongly separated. There is sharing of haplotypes between the Tanzanian SEA goats and goats from Kenya. Population expansion occurred in all the SEA goat strains.
Keywords: genetic diversity; Small East African goats; maternal origin; mitochondrial DNA
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