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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 30(11); 2017 > Article
Animal Products
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2017;30(11): 1612-1619.
DOI:    Published online February 23, 2017.
Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for the production of antioxidant hydrolysates from porcine liver by using response surface methodology
Hui-Chuan Yu1, Fa-Jui Tan1,*
Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Correspondence:  Fa-Jui Tan, Tel: +886-4-22870613 (246), Fax: +886-4-22860265, Email:
Received: 14 October 2016   • Revised: 4 January 2017   • Accepted: 5 February 2017
Objective: The objective of this study was to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, including enzyme-to-substrate (E/S) ratio, pH, and temperature, for producing porcine liver hydrolysates (PLHs) with the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity by using response surface methodology (RSM).


The study used RSM to determine the combination of hydrolysis parameters that maximized the antioxidant activity of our PLHs. Temperature (40°C, 54°C, and 68°C), pH (8.5, 9.5, and 10.5), and E/S ratio (0.1%, 2.1%, and 4.1%) were selected as the independent variables and analyzed according to the preliminary experiment results, whereas DPPH free radical scavenging activity was selected as the dependent variable.


Analysis of variance showed that E/S ratio, pH, and temperature significantly affected the hydrolysis process (p<0.01). The optimal conditions for producing PLHs with the highest scavenging activity were as follows: E/S ratio, 1.4% (v/w); temperature, 55.5°C; and initial pH, 10.15. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating ability, and reducing power of PLHs were 24.12%, 79%, 98.18%, and 0.601 absorbance unit, respectively. The molecular weight of most PLHs produced under these optimal conditions was less than 5,400 Da and contained 45.7% hydrophobic amino acids.
Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis can be applied to obtain favorable antioxidant hydrolysates from porcine liver with potential applications in food products for preventing lipid oxidation.
Keywords: Antioxidant Activity; Hydrolysate; Liver; Response Surface Methodology; Ultrasound
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