Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening

Article information

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci.. 2015;28(1):120-126
1Department of Food Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang43400, Malaysia.
2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-950, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: H. S. Kwak. Tel: +82-2-3408-3226, Fax: +82-2-3408-4319, E-mail: kwakhs@sejong.ac.kr

Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea

Received 2014 January 22; Revised 2014 March 20; Accepted 2014 April 08.

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH)- or red ginseng extract (RGE)-added Asiago cheeses (AC) during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p<0.05). While RGHAC and RGEAC were more yellow and darker with increasing concentrations than that of control (p<0.05), the color was not influenced from the hydrolysis. In texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of RGHAC and RGEAC significantly decreased compared to the control during the ripening (p<0.05). In sensory analysis, bitterness and ginseng flavor and taste scores increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH and RGE during ripening (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of RGH and RGE into cheese slightly influenced the properties of Asiago cheese, and similarities were observed between RGHAC and RGEAC. Thus, the lower concentrations (0.1% to 0.3%) of RGH and RGE added to AC were preferred for color, texture, and sensory during the ripening, therefore, these cheeses would be worth developing commercially.

INTRODUCTION

Korean ginseng is well known for its various bioactive functions, such as antidiabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer (Lee et al., 1997; Chung et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2006). They are available in two forms in the commercial market based on the processing types involved, known as white and red ginsengs. White ginseng is obtained from peeling the fresh ginseng and air drying, whereas red ginseng is obtained from steaming ginseng at 98°C to 100°C without peeling (Lee et al., 2012). Steaming process enhances the richness of many functional compounds, such as Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 ginsenosides, which are mostly absent from white ginseng (Kwon et al., 2001). Most of the functional ginsenosides are readily metabolized by the intestinal bacteria and are easily absorbed into the blood stream to act as functional bioactive compounds.

Recent studies have suggested that enzyme-hydrolysis is an effective way to increase the oral bioavailability of the bioactive compound. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the main component in ginsenosides. It is a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside that has a structure similar to that of compound K (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, C-K) (Bae et al., 2002; Paek et al., 2006). By enzymatically hydrolyzing, the two glucose molecules at C-3 and one of the glucose molecules at C-20, ginsenosides Rb1 can easily be transformed to C-K. The C-K does not exist in natural products and the natural transforming ability of human intestinal bacteria is rather limited, therefore, much attention ha 3s been paid to the preparation of C-K (Akao et al., 1998). However, none of the methods were suitable for preparation of C-K, because both glycone moieties at C-20 could be cleaved nonspecifically under chemical hydrolysis conditions.

Cheese is one of the most nutritious dairy foods which provides a rich source of protein, fat, and minerals (Jung et al., 2013). Among the cheeses, Asiago cheese (AC) is an Italian type hard cheese widely consumed in many European and oriental countries. Based on the ageing, it is classified into two forms; “Pressato” with a lower ageing period and “Asiago d’Allevo” with an ageing period of 6 months. The typical characteristics of the AC is that it does not undergo any flavor change after an ageing period of 9 months. Besides the higher nutritional content of AC, today’s health conscious society requires value-added functional AC. Some researchers also reported adding functional compounds to a hard cheese, such as evening primrose oil into Cheddar cheese, to lower blood cholesterol (Kim et al., 2006) and the antioxidant effect of ginseng in yogurt (Kim et al., 2008). To our knowledge, there is no report of adding ginseng or its hydrolyzate to AC. Therefore, the objective of this work was focused on the physiochemical and sensory properties of cheese with added red ginseng extracts (RGE) or its hydrolyzates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH) and RGE were provided from Dongwon F&B Co., Ltd. (Seongnam, Korea). The contents of ginsenosides in RGE and RGH were shown in Table 1.

Contents of ginsenosides in red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH) and red ginseng extracts (RGE)

Manufacture of Asiago cheese

Asiago cheese was produced using the method described by Gazzetta (2006). Raw milk (100 kg) was pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min and it was cooled to 35°C and then 1% of a freeze-dried direct vat set mesophilic aromatic lactic acid starter culture (FLORA DANICA, Chr. Hansen’s Lab., Copenhagen, Denmark) and 0.02% CaCl2 were added to the milk. After 50 min, 0.02% (19 mL) of rennet (diluted 1:20) (Chr. Hansen’s Lab., Copenhagen, Denmark) was added to milk and allowed to stand for 30 min. After coagulating, curds were cut, set for 3 min, gradually heated from 35 to 40°C for 20 min and stirred at 40°C for 20 min (1st heating). The 2nd heating proceeded from 40°C to 45°C for 20 with stirring at 45°C for 30 min. Whey was totally removed for 20 min during setting and rubbed for removing residual whey until it disappeared. Different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of RGE and RGH were evenly added to curds before they were put into molds for pressing. After that, the curds were pressed at 6 times of the curd weight overnight. After pressing, the fresh cheeses were brined in 20% brine solution (pH 5.2 to 5.4) for 2 h. After draining-off from the brine and drying the cheese, they were ripened at 14°C for 6 months with a relative humidity of 85%. Samples for analysis were periodically taken at 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months of ripening

Proximate analysis

Asiago cheese samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat according to the methods of AOAC (AOAC, 2000).

Lactic acid bacteria count

De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth (DifcoLaboratores, Detroit, MN, USA) and 0.004% bromophenol blue was used for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts. One gram of cheese sample was dispersed in 9 mL of 2% sodium citrate and it was prepared by homogenizing for 1 min at 1,500 rpm. One milliliter of prepared sample was diluted with 9 mL of sterile 0.8% NaCl. Subsequent dilutions of each sample were plated in triplicate and incubated at 37°C for 72 h.

Color measurement

Color values were compared between the control and sample cheeses using a colorimeter (Minolta CT-310, Tokyo, Japan) after calibrating its original value with a standard plate. Measured L*, a*, and b* values were used as indicators of lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. All samples were measured in triplicate.

Texture profile analysis

Cube-shaped samples (1.5 cm3) of each cheese at each stage of ripening were cut from the central part of the cheese. Textural properties, such as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness of the cheese, were measured with a TMS-Pro Texture Analyzer (Food Technology Co., Sterling, VA, USA) according to the modified method of Kanawjia et al. (1995).

Sensory analysis

For the sensory test, red ginseng-treated AC were ripened at 14°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months with relative humidity of 85%. A 10-member trained panel evaluated randomly coded AC. The appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste were evaluated on a 7-point scale as follows; (1 = very weak, 4 = moderate, 7 = very strong). A randomized, balanced, complete block design was used by Cochran and Cox (1957).

Statistical analysis

The results are expressed as mean±SD. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance and subsequent Duncan’s multiple range test (p<0.05). The analysis was performed using SAS statistical software.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Proximate analysis

The composition of AC added with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of RGH or RGE at 0 month are presented in Table 2. Moisture contents of red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese (RGEAC) and red ginseng hydrolyzates-added Asiago cheese (RGHAC) were significantly higher than that in control, and increasing the concentrations of RGE and RGH in cheeses also significantly increased moisture contents (p<0.05). Fat and protein contents were relatively decreased by adding RGE and RGH. While ash was increased with increasing concentrations of RGE and RGH in cheese, the highest ash content was observed in RGHAC (0.5%, wt/wt). High amounts of moisture in RGEAC and RGHAC were influenced by the soluble content obtained from ethanol extraction, but enzyme hydrolysis that produced smaller molecules did not affect the moisture composition. Ethanol extraction of red ginseng contained mainly glycosides that may not have influenced the quantitative composition of the ginseng.

Proximate analysis in red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese (%)

Lactic acid bacteria count

The changes in LAB counts of RGHAC and RGEAC ripened at 14°C for 4 months are shown in Table 3. Increasing the ripening periods caused the LAB counts to be significantly decreased in both cheeses (p<0.05), but LAB count was not influenced by the addition of RGH or RGE in the cheeses. Over the ripening period, LAB in 0.5% RGHAC and 0.5% RGEAC decreased from 2.90×109 to 1.95×107 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL and from 2.90×109 to 1.95×107 CFU/mL, respectively. Similarly, Kim et al. (2008) also reported that RGE addition to yogurt does not effect the LAB counts in the yogurt. It is further confirmed in our study, even the addition of the RGH rich in glycosides, such as Rg1, Rb1, Rh1, and Rg3 has no adverse effect on the LAB counts.

Change of lactic acid bacteria count in red ginseng hydrozate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months (CFU/mL)

Color

The changes in color of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) of RGH-or RGE-added AC samples ripened at 14°C for 4 months are presented in Table 4. The L* values decreased significantly with increasing ripening periods over 4 months, and the concentrations of RGH or RGE in cheeses also significantly decreased the L* value (p<0.05). However, the a* values significantly increased with an increasing ripening period, and increasing the concentrations of RGE and RGH (0.1% to 0.5%, w/w) in cheeses significantly decreased the a* value (p<0.05). The b* values were also increased in the RGHAC and RGEAC as concentrations of RGH or RGE (0.1% to 0.5%, wt/wt) were increased. According to Rohn and Jaros, (1996), a longer ripened time for hard cheeses resulted in a decrease of L* value and an increase of a* and b* values. In the present study, a similar trend was observed in changes of color during the ripening periods due to the dark brown color of the RGE. These results are supported by the study of Kim et al. (2008) who also reported that the addition of RGE in yogurt greatly decreased L* value and increased the b* values with the increasing concentration of RGE.

Changes in color of red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months

Texture profiles analysis

The changes in the texture profile of RGHAC and RGEAC in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness during 4 months of ripening are shown in Table 5. Regarding hardness, all of the samples increased with increasing the ripening period, however, the concentrations of the RGH or RGE (0.1% to 0.5%, wt/wt) decreased the hardness of cheeses (p<0.05). At 0 month ripening period, differences in hardness were markedly affected by adding RGH and RGE, but the hardness of RGHAC and RGEAC gradually became similar to that of the control during the ripening. In all samples, cohesiveness and springiness of control were ranged from 0.67 to 0.77 and from 0.82 to 0.93, respectively, during ripening. However, the concentrations of RGH and RGE had no effect on the cohesiveness and springiness of cheese during ripening. Gumminess and chewiness were insignificantly increased with increasing the ripening time but the concentrations of RGH and RGE had no effect. This results can be explained by highly hydroscopic characteristics of red ginseng as shown in Table 1. Song et al. (2007) also reported that higher water absorption of RGE caused weak dough in white bread.

Texture properties of red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheeses ripened at 14°C for 4 months

Sensory evaluation

The sensory attributes of the different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%, wt/wt) of RGH-or RGE-added AC ripened at 14°C for 4 months are shown in Table 6. At 0 month ripening, there was no significant difference in most sensory attributes of RGH and RGE in AC (p>0.05). However, ginseng flavor and taste were increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH-or RGE-added to AC (p<0.05). Increasing the RGH or RGE addition significantly increased yellowness score and cheese eye in 4 months (p<0.05). Larger number of cheese eye during 4 months could be attributed to the release of CO2 from the curd due to the relative softer texture. Flavor and taste properties, such as bitterness and astringency, were not significantly increased with increased of RGH and RGE (p>0.05). However, ginseng taste significantly increased with concentrations of RGE and RGH (0.3% and 0.5%, wt/wt). Increased concentrations of RGE and RGH at 0.5% (wt/wt) significantly influenced the bitterness and astringency score AC during 4 month storage (p<0.05). Hardness score was lowered with additions of RGH and RGE to AC in early ripening period, however, there was little effect after 4 month storage. Most studies reported that additions of the red ginseng to other foods, such as Topokki, Garaedduck, Yackwa, Tofu etc. showed negative effects on preference (Hyun and Kim, 2005; Lee et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2011). However, ginseng hydrolyzates and extracts revealed positive results in 0.1% and 0.3% added to chesses during ripening.

Sensory evaluation of the red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months

CONCLUSION

The current study was designed to develop RGH- or RGE-added AC and to evaluate the effect of adding RGH and RGE on the physicochemical, texture, and sensory properties during ripening. The data on the LAB, color, texture, and sensory analysis obtained from the current study indicated that concentrations (0.1% to 0.3%) of RGH and RGE could be applicable in RGH- or RGE-added cheese development. The production of AC that incorporates RGH or RGE can broaden the utilization of red ginseng, and the products can be regarded as possible health-promoting functional foods.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The present study was supported by a grant from Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea.

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Article information Continued

Table 1

Contents of ginsenosides in red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH) and red ginseng extracts (RGE)

Ginsenoside RGH (mg/g) RGE (mg/g)
Rg1+Rb1 15 15
Rh1+Rg3 15 15
CK+F2 2 -

CK, compound K (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol).

Table 2

Proximate analysis in red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese (%)

Concentration of sample (%, wt/wt) Moisture Fat Protein Ash
Control 34.35±0.27d4) 33.54±0.27a 21.53±0.19a 10.88±0.12b
RGEAC (0.1) 35.54±0.31bc 33.40±0.26a 21.34±0.34a 10.11±0.25b
RGEAC (0.3) 36.05±0.67ab 33.30±0.87a 20.00±0.16ab 10.26±0.30ab
RGEAC (0.5) 36.64±0.10a 32.97±0.14b 19.79±0.50b 10.77±0.14ab
RGHAC (0.1) 35.26±0.34c 33.10±0.51ab 21.11±0.11a 10.78±0.18ab
RGHAC (0.3) 35.66±0.15bc 32.78±0.64b 20.04±0.40ab 10.49±0.24ab
RGHAC (0.5) 36.14±0.62ab 32.55±0.11b 19.88±0.08b 11.18±0.42a

Control, Asiago cheese; RGEAC, red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese; RGHAC, red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese; SD, standard deviation.

Data values were expressed as mean±SD (n = 3). Values within the same column with different superscripts are significantly different at p<0.05 by Duncan’s multiple range test.

Table 3

Change of lactic acid bacteria count in red ginseng hydrozate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months (CFU/mL)

Concentration of sample (%, wt/wt) Ripening period (month)

01 1 2 3 4
Control 3.15±0.56×109aA 7.91±0.11×108bA 1.45±0.02×108cAB 6.90±0.13×107dA 1.95±0.63×107eA
RGEAC (0.1) 2.90±0.26×109aAB 7.89±0.25×108bAB 1.59±0.17×108cA 6.93±0.51×107dA 1.99±0.52×107eA
RGEAC (0.3) 2.85±0.91×109aBC 7.90±0.37×108bAB 1.31±0.21×108cB 6.81±0.45×107dA 1.91±0.24×107eB
RGEAC (0.5) 2.93±0.12×109aAB 8.05±0.22×108bA 1.45±0.35×108cAB 6.95±0.7×107dA 1.95±0.28×107eAB
RGHAC (0.1) 2.91±0.33×109aAB 7.95±0.74×108bA 1.49±0.27×108cA 6.79±0.31×107dAB 1.99±0.73×107eA
RGHAC (0.3) 2.95±0.37×109aAB 7.91±0.10×108bA 1.51±0.46×108cA 6.96±0.54×107dAB 1.91±0.30×107eB
RGHAC (0.5) 2.90±0.71×109aAB 7.75±0.61×108bB 1.55±0.44×108cA 6.45±0.18×107dB 1.95±0.09×107eA

CFU, colony-forming unit; Control, Asiago cheese; RGEAC, red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese; RGHAC, red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese; SD, standard deviation.

1

0 month means the sample obtained after 48 hours from cheese making.

Values are mean±SD (n = 10). Means with different superscripts in a row (a–e) and column (A–G) are significant at p<0.05 by Ducan’s multiple range test.

Table 4

Changes in color of red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months

Color value Concentration of sample (%, wt/wt) Ripening period (month)

01 1 2 3 4
L* Control 80.57±0.6aA 79.84±0.67bA 77.14±0.73cA 75.84±0.31dA 75.15±0.37eA
RGEAC (0.1) 80.63±0.67aA 79.14±0.47bB 77.42±0.76cA 76.16±0.37dA 75.45±0.29eA
RGEAC (0.3) 79.70±0.23aB 76.57±0.94bD 76.01±0.76cB 74.49±0.32dC 74.31±0.35dB
RGEAC (0.5) 78.53±0.28aD 73.71±0.66bE 74.20±0.72cD 73.65±0.34cD 71.95±0.52dD
RGHAC (0.1) 80.67±0.28aA 78.02±1.17bC 77.22±0.69cA 76.15±0.66dA 75.29±0.21eA
RGHAC (0.3) 79.24±0.14aC 76.10±0.32bD 75.24±0.6cC 75.00±0.46cB 73.31±0.35dC
RGHAC (0.5) 77.70±0.52aE 73.35±0.32bE 73.98±0.41cD 72.68±0.5dE 71.57±0.43eE
a* Control 3.79±0.18cA 3.78±0.18cA 3.86±0.17cA 7.93±0.16bA 8.35±0.1aA
RGEAC (0.1) 3.35±0.23dB 3.30±0.09dB 3.89±0.14cB 7.93±0.2bA 8.13±0.12aB
RGEAC (0.3) 2.34±0.21eD 2.84±0.2dD 3.14±0.22cD 7.07±0.27bC 7.38±0.11aD
RGEAC (0.5) 2.05±0.16dE 2.45±0.11cE 2.67±0.17bE 6.86±0.32aD 6.90±0.2aE
RGHAC (0.1) 3.15±0.18cB 3.36±0.19bB 3.40±0.12bC 7.77±0.12aA 7.84±0.11aC
RGHAC (0.3) 2.68±0.24dC 3.03±0.27cC 3.22±0.08bD 7.33±0.1aD 7.43±0.13aD
RGHAC (0.5) 2.44±0.32dD 2.68±0.17cD 2.58±0.16cdE 6.73±0.13bB 7.01±0.31aE
b* Control 10.35±0.88dE 11.38±0.19cD 11.64±0.38cD 14.85±0.47bD 15.56±0.16aD
RGEAC (0.1) 11.46±0.26eCD 11.81±0.31dC 12.36±0.22cC 15.77±0.52bC 16.33±0.23aC
RGEAC (0.3) 12.87±1.28bB 13.10±0.52bB 13.42±0.37bB 17.36±0.19aB 17.62±0.42aB
RGEAC (0.5) 14.27±0.41dA 14.54±0.25cA 14.95±0.51cA 17.99±0.44bA 19.02±0.74aA
RGHAC (0.1) 11.21±0.26eD 11.79±0.35dC 12.25±0.08cC 15.60±0.47bC 16.25±0.27aC
RGHAC (0.3) 11.91±0.34dC 13.24±0.37cB 13.41±0.57cB 17.08±0.46bB 17.48±0.15aB
RGHAC (0.5) 13.74±0.38dA 14.23±0.69cA 14.83±0.3bA 17.86±0.32aA 18.18±0.54aAB

Control, Asiago cheese; RGEAC, red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese; RGHAC, red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese; SD, standard deviation.

1

0 month means the sample obtained after 48 hours from cheese making

Values are mean±SD (n = 10). Means with different superscripts in a row (a–e) and column (A–G) are significant at p<0.05 by Ducan’s multiple range test.

Table 5

Texture properties of red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheeses ripened at 14°C for 4 months

Texture description Concentration of sample (%, wt/wt) Ripening period (month)

01 1 2 3 4
Hardness (N) Control 9.90±0.79cdA 10.31±0.78cA 10.29±1.52cA 12.13±1.08bA 15.19±1.06aA
RGEAC (0.1) 7.94±0.83dB 7.94±0.83dCD 9.82±0.55cAB 10.81±0.77bB 13.09±0.48aB
RGEAC (0.3) 7.23±0.43cBC 8.78±0.84bB 8.91±0.55bD 11.39±0.96abAB 12.62±0.56aBC
RGEAC (0.5) 8.02±0.53cdB 8.01±0.50cd 9.06±0.62cC 10.76±0.34bB 12.70±1.00aB
RGHAC (0.1) 7.00±1.64dC 8.26±0.31cC 9.38±1.31bcC 10.90±0.74bB 15.46±2.24aA
RGHAC (0.3) 6.38±0.39dD 7.77±0.64cD 10.09±0.54bA 10.85±0.66bB 13.09±0.55aB
RGHAC (0.5) 7.24±0.46dBC 8.74±0.58cB 9.92±0.80bAB 9.87±0.42bC 10.87±0.74aC
Cohesiveness Control 0.77±0.01aA 0.72±0.01bB 0.69±0.02cD 0.71±0.02bAB 0.67±0.02dC
RGEAC (0.1) 0.70±0.03aC 0.70±0.03aBC 0.71±0.02aC 0.71±0.01aAB 0.68±0.01bB
RGEAC (0.3) 0.71±0.00bB 0.73±0.02aB 0.73±0.01aB 0.69±0.02cC 0.71±0.00bA
RGEAC (0.5) 0.77±0.01aA 0.71±0.01bB 0.70±0.01bcCD 0.72±0.02bA 0.69±0.02cAB
RGHAC (0.1) 0.72±0.01bB 0.76±0.02aA 0.71±0.00bC 0.71±0.01bAB 0.68±0.01cB
RGHAC (0.3) 0.70±0.02bcC 0.72±0.01bB 0.76±0.03aA 0.70±0.01bcB 0.68±0.01cB
RGHAC (0.5) 0.72±0.01bB 0.69±0.03cC 0.76±0.04aA 0.70±0.01cB 0.68±0.02cdB
Springiness Control 0.82±0.11cD 0.88±0.03bA 0.82±0.00cC 0.88±0.07bB 0.93±0.09aA
RGEAC (0.1) 0.87±0.08bB 0.87±0.08bB 0.82±0.01cC 0.90±0.04aA 0.89±0.09abBC
RGEAC (0.3) 0.86±0.07bB 0.88±0.12abA 0.89±0.06abA 0.88±0.03abB 0.90±0.02aB
RGEAC (0.5) 0.90±0.13aA 0.89±0.01aA 0.83±0.01cC 0.85±0.06bC 0.89±0.08aBC
RGHAC (0.1) 0.84±0.01cBC 0.83±0.08cB 0.87±0.02bAB 0.90±0.05aA 0.88±0.08bC
RGHAC (0.3) 0.84±0.02bBC 0.90±0.03aA 0.86±0.11bAB 0.91±0.07aA 0.92±0.07aAB
RGHAC (0.5) 0.90±0.01aA 0.86±0.02bAB 0.85±0.09bB 0.82±0.02cD 0.92±0.06aB
Gumminess (N) Control 7.64±0.66cA 7.39±0.56cA 7.07±0.87cB 8.61±0.93bA 10.43±1.45aA
RGEAC (0.1) 5.58±0.38dC 5.58±0.38dC 6.94±0.26cBC 7.70±0.51bB 8.85±0.46aB
RGEAC (0.3) 5.14±0.29dCD 6.48±0.51cB 6.48±0.44cC 7.85±0.78bB 8.97±0.39aB
RGEAC (0.5) 6.18±0.36cB 5.73±0.38dC 6.38±0.41cC 7.77±0.36bB 8.81±0.56aB
RGHAC (0.1) 5.02±1.17dCD 6.27±0.29cB 6.64±0.95bcC 6.96±0.33bD 7.44±0.43aC
RGHAC (0.3) 4.45±0.28dD 5.60±0.48cC 7.62±0.13bA 7.57±0.46bBC 10.38±0.77aA
RGHAC (0.5) 5.23±0.31dC 6.03±0.46cBC 7.58±0.73bA 7.66±0.36bC 8.91±0.38aB
Chewiness Control 6.25±0.80cdA 6.50±0.51cA 5.82±0.72dAB 7.59±1.25bA 9.74±1.76aA
RGEAC (0.1) 4.82±0.37dBC 4.82±0.37dD 5.71±0.23cAB 6.91±0.42bB 7.86±1.10aB
RGEAC (0.3) 4.44±0.48dC 5.68±0.96cB 5.77±0.43cAB 7.69±0.78bA 8.06±0.34aB
RGEAC (0.5) 5.44±0.54cB 5.11±0.30cdBC 5.27±0.29cB 6.63±0.70bBC 7.84±1.12aB
RGHAC (0.1) 4.22±1.05cCD 5.21±0.57bcBC 5.77±0.71bABB 6.28±0.51ab 6.58±0.91aC
RGHAC (0.3) 3.76±0.23dD 5.06±0.47cC 6.54±0.96bA 6.90±0.62bB 9.56±0.47aA
RGHAC (0.5) 4.71±0.27dBC 5.10±0.44cBC 6.41±0.32bA 6.33±0.64bC 8.22±0.56aB

Control, Asiago cheese; RGEAC, red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese; RGHAC, red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese; SD, standard deviation.

1

0 month means the sample obtained after 48 hours from cheese making.

Data values were expressed as mean±SD (n = 5). Means with different superscripts in a row (a–e) and column (A–G) are significant at p<0.05 by Ducan’s multiple range test.

Table 6

Sensory evaluation of the red ginseng hydrolyzate- or red ginseng extracts-added Asiago cheese ripened at 14°C for 4 months

Concentration of sample (%, wt/wt) Appearance Flavor and taste Texture



Yellowness Cheese eye Bitterness Astringency Ginseng Hardness
0-m ripening period1
 Control 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00a 1.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a
 RGEAC (0.1) 4.57±0.38a 4.00±0.00a 3.86±0.38a 4.14±1.22a 1.57±0.79bc 4.14±0.69a
 RGEAC (0.3) 4.57±0.54a 4.29±0.49a 4.14±0.90a 4.71±0.76a 1.57±0.79bc 4.00±0.58a
 RGEAC (0.5) 4.57±0.79a 4.14±0.38a 4.14±0.90a 4.29±0.76a 2.71±1.11a 4.00±0.58a
 RGHAC (0.1) 4.00±0.0a 4.14±0.38a 3.57±0.89a 4.00±0.00a 1.14±0.38c 4.00±0.39a
 RGHAC (0.3) 4.14±0.38a 4.14±0.38a 4.00±0.58a 4.14±0.69a 1.57±0.54bc 3.85±0.69a
 RGHAC (0.5) 4.14±0.79a 4.29±0.49a 4.00±0.58a 3.86±0.69a 2.29±1.38ab 3.85±0.00a
1-m ripening period
 Control 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a 1.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a
 RGEAC (0.1) 4.14±0.38c 4.00±0.58a 4.29±0.76c 4.00±0.82a 1.71±0.49bc 3.86±0.69a
 RGEAC (0.3) 4.86±0.38b 4.14±0.38a 4.58±0.79abc 4.43±0.98a 2.86±1.35ab 3.58±0.54a
 RGEAC (0.5) 5.57±0.54a 4.42±0.79a 4.71±0.76ab 4.43±0.79a 3.86±1.35a 4.00±0.82a
 RGHAC (0.1) 4.00±0.58c 4.14±0.38a 4.71±1.11abc 4.00±0.82a 1.43±0.54c 3.29±0.49a
 RGHAC (0.3) 5.00±0.58b 4.00±0.58a 5.00±0.58ab 4.71±0.76a 2.71±0.95ab 3.29±0.49a
 RGHAC (0.5) 5.71±0.76a 4.29±0.49a 5.14±0.90ab 4.86±1.22a 3.00±1.53a 3.58±0.79a
2-m ripening period
 Control 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a 1.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a
 RGEAC (0.1) 4.14±0.38c 4.00±0.82a 4.29±0.76bc 3.86±1.07a 1.71±0.49bc 3.86±0.69ab
 RGEAC (0.3) 4.86±0.38b 4.14±0.38a 4.57±0.79abc 4.29±1.25a 2.86±1.35ab 3.86±1.07ab
 RGEAC (0.5) 5.57±0.54a 4.57±0.98a 5.29±0.76a 4.43±0.79a 3.86±1.35a 3.43±0.79ab
 RGHAC (0.1) 4.00±0.58c 4.14±0.69a 4.71±1.11abc 3.86±1.07a 1.43±0.54c 3.29±0.49ab
 RGHAC (0.3) 5.00±0.58b 4.57±0.98a 5.00±0.58ab 5.00±0.82a 2.71±0.95ab 3.57±0.79ab
 RGHAC (0.5) 5.71±0.76a 4.86±1.07a 5.14±0.90ab 4.571.13a 3.00±1.53a 3.00±0.82b
3-m ripening period
 Control 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00a 4.00±0.00a 1.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00b
 RGEAC (0.1) 4.57±0.98bc 4.29±0.49a 4.00±0.82a 4.14±1.07a 2.14±0.38b 4.43±0.54ab
 RGEAC (0.3) 5.14±0.38b 4.43±0.54a 4.43±0.79a 4.14±0.69a 2.43±0.79ab 4.43±0.54ab
 RGEAC (0.5) 5.86±0.69a 4.57±0.98a 4.43±0.98a 5.00±0.82a 3.00±0.82a 4.57±1.13ab
 RGHAC (0.1) 4.43±0.54c 4.00±0.82a 4.43±1.27a 4.71±1.11a 1.29±0.49c 4.71±0.95ab
 RGHAC (0.3) 5.14±0.38b 4.00±0.90a 4.00±0.82a 4.14±0.69a 2.14±1.07b 3.00±0.82a
 RGHAC (0.5) 6.00±0.58a 4.29±0.49a 4.43±0.54a 4.43±0.79a 2.43±0.54ab 3.00±0.82a
4-m ripening period
 Control 4.00±0.00b 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00b 1.00±0.00c 4.00±0.00ab
 RGEAC (0.1) 4.00±0.58b 4.86±0.90b 4.29±0.49bc 4.43±0.79b 2.29±1.25b 3.57±0.54b
 RGEAC (0.3) 5.29±0.49a 4.86±0.38b 4.57±0.98bc 4.43±0.54b 3.14±1.35ab 4.29±1.11ab
 RGEAC (0.5) 5.57±0.79a 5.43±0.54ab 5.71±0.95a 5.86±0.90sb 3.29±0.76ab 4.43±0.98ab
 RGHAC (0.1) 4.00±0.58b 5.71±0.49a 4.43±0.98bc 4.86±1.35b 2.29±0.49b 3.86±0.90b
 RGHAC (0.3) 5.29±0.95a 5.43±0.79ab 4.71±0.76bc 4.71±0.49b 2.71±0.76ab 3.57±0.79b
 RGHAC (0.5) 5.43±0.96a 6.00±0.58a 5.14±1.35ab 5.00±1.16ab 3.86±1.57a 5.00±1.16a

Control, Asiago cheese; RGEAC, red ginseng extract-added Asiago cheese; RGHAC, red ginseng hydrolyzate-added Asiago cheese; SD, standard deviation.

1

0 month means the sample obtained after 48 hours from cheese making

Data values were expressed as mean±SD (n = 7). Means with different superscripts in a row (a–g) is significant at p<0.05 by Ducan’s multiple range test.