Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Livestock Agriculture in 16 Local Administrative Districts of Korea

Article information

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci.. 2012;25(12):1768-1774
*Corresponding Author: Kyu-Hyun Park. Tel: +82-31-290-1718, Fax: +82-31-290-1731, E-mail: kpark74@korea.kr

National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 441-706, Korea

Received 2012 August 06; Accepted 2012 September 10; Revised 2012 September 19.

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%–114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (−63%), Seoul (−36%) and Gyeonggi (−7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%–124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (−77%), Busan (−60%), Gwangju (−48%) and Seoul (−8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%–153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (−60%), Seoul (−4.0%), and Gwangju (−0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%–120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (−65%), Seoul (−24%), Busan (−18%), Gwangju (−8%) and Gyeonggi (−1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2.2%. Efforts by the local administrative offices to improve the accuracy of activity data are essential to improve GHG inventories. Direct measurements of GHG emissions from enteric fermentation and manure treatment systems will further enhance the accuracy of the GHG data. (Key Words: Greenhouse Gas, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emission, Climate Change)

INTRODUCTION

Livestock population in Korea has been increased with a rise in national per capita income causing propensity to consume more livestock products (Lee and Lee, 2003), which in turn has led to increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock agriculture. In 2009, the government of Korea announced the reduction of GHG emissions up to 30% nationwide and 5.2% in livestock agriculture with active application of reduction methods, compared to GHG emissions estimated by Business-as-Usual in 2020. Key categories and emissions of GHG sources should be examined accurately in order to accomplish the GHG reduction target (Kim, 2007).

According to the revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the target gases in livestock agriculture. Enteric fermentation is the source of CH4 and manure treatment is the source of CH4 and N2O. Methane from enteric fermentation is the byproduct of microbes’ metabolic activities in the digestive organs. Microbes in anaerobic rumen, especially, play a key role in digesting feed for ruminant, which causes higher CH4 production compared to pseudo-ruminant and monogastric livestock. Methane emissions during manure treatment are produced by microbes digesting organic matters in manure stored in anaerobic condition. Methane production from manure treatment is mainly affected by the amount of stored manure, organic matter contents in manure, and the portion of manure anaerobically decomposed. Nitrous oxide emissions during manure treatment are produced during decomposition of nitrogen sources in anoxic condition. Methane and N2O emissions are also affected by the location of manure treatment facilities in climate region and the duration of manure treatment (Park et al., 2006; 2011).

Quantifying GHG emissions from in regional and national livestock agriculture have been studied worldwide (Zhou et al., 2007; Aljaloud et al., 2011; Merino et al., 2011). Previous researches on GHG emissions from livestock agriculture in Korea have been focused on the quantifying CH4 emission during enteric fermentation for national inventory for CH4 (Lee and Lee, 2003), the evaluation of GHG emissions during main processes in public livestock manure treatment facilities (Lim et al., 2011), and the evaluation of GHG emissions from livestock manure and food waste co-digesting biogas facility with the life cycle assessment (Nam et al., 2008). Currently local administrative districts are interested in the characteristics of their GHG emissions and GHG mitigation measures. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the characteristics of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture and to estimate those emissions in the past and in the future in 16 local administrative districts.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Activity data and system boundary

Activity data and emission factors in livestock category are essential to calculate GHG emission presented by IPCC (2006). The necessary activity data needed to calculate GHG emission were found in national statistics of the year. Dairy, beef including Korean native cattle called Hanwoo, swine, chicken, goat, sheep, horse, deer, and duck were chosen for this study. Greenhouse gases were emitted by two paths, enteric fermentation and manure treatment. Methane was emitted from enteric fermentation and manure treatment, and nitrous oxide was emitted from manure treatment. It is noteworthy that the populations of goat, sheep, horse, deer, and duck between 1990 and 1992 were not found so that emissions were not calculated. Population of livestock was based on December of the year and shown in Table 1. Activity data of the distribution and the types of livestock manure treatment systems in GIR (2011) were used for 16 local administrative districts of Korea. National mean air temperature (14°C) were used for the mean temperature where manure treatment systems located.

Population of Major livestock in Korea between year 1990 and 2009

Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from 16 local administrative districts in Korea

IPCC (2006) guideline was used to calculate GHG emissions. IPCC (1996) and GIR (2011), however, were referred if activity data were not ready for the conditions of IPCC (2006). The conditions of selection of emission factors referred to GIR (2011) are based on Tier 1 approach. According to the explanation of IPCC (2006) guideline and Korea’s conditions, emission factors of North America were used for dairy and beef cattle. Emission factors of Western Europe were used for swine. Emission factors of developing countries were used for other livestock. Comparisons of GHG emissions on a CO2-Eq were estimated using a 100 yr global warming potential of 25 for CH4 and 298 for N2O (IPCC, 2006).

In order to forecast GHG emissions from 2010 to 2030, livestock populations were extrapolated with regression calculated by Grapher (2009) based on the livestock population between 1990 and 2009. Maximum limits based on actual population records were, however, set if continuous livestock population increase was anticipated. Correlation analysis was conducted by Matlab (2008) with function command corrcoef to find the effects of major livestock species on CH4 and N2O emissions in Korea.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2009 in 16 local administrative districts of Korea

Yearly CH4 and N2O emissions from 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 1990 and 2009 were calculated and data for 10 yearly emissions are shown in Table 2. Livestock activity data of Ulsan were included in Gyeongsangnam up to 1997 and thereafter were separated as Ulsan from Gyeongsangnam.

The CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2009

Yearly CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in the 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 1990 and 2009 increased from 153,717 t in 1990 to 231,271 t in 1996 and then decreased to 157,131 t in 2001 and increased thereafter to 209,978 t in 2009. Methane emissions by enteric fermentation in Gyeonggi, the highest enteric CH4 emitter among 16 local administrative districts, recorded 44,824 t in 1994 and decreased thereafter. Local administrative districts showing decreased CH4 emissions in 2009 compared to 1990 were Gyeonggi (−1,029 t, −3%), Gwangju (−465 t, −52%), Daejeon (−351 t, −57%), Busan (−88 t, −28%), and Seoul (−48 t, −57%). Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in other 11 local administrative districts had increased since 1990. Correlation analysis was conducted to find the effects of major livestock species on enteric CH4 emissions in Korea (Table 3). Correlation of CH4 from beef cattle to total CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation was very high (r = 0.977), which was much stronger than dairy (r = 0.120) and swine (r = −0.098). Hence, beef cattle were main contributor of enteric CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation.

Correlation analysis between major livestock species and CH4 and N2O emissions of livestock categories in Korea from 1990 to 2009

Yearly CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems in 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 1990 and 2009 steadily increased from 70,620 t in 1990 to 112,525 t in 2009, which was 29%–60% less than yearly CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation. Methane emissions by manure treatment systems in Gyeonggi, the highest CH4 source of manure treatment systems among 16 local administrative districts, were between 26,281 t and 30,767 t from 1990 and 2009. Local administrative districts where emitted less CH4 from manure treatment systems in 2009 than in 1990 were Daejeon (−227 t, −88%), Gwangju (−181 t, −63%), Incheon (−112 t, −15%), Busan (−108 t, −40%), Seoul (−51 t, −90%), and Daegu (−4 t, −1%). Other 10 local administrative districts emitted steady or more CH4 (0%–298%) in 2009 than in 1990 from manure treatment systems.

Yearly N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 1990 and 2009 increased from 2,734 t in 1990 to 4,359 t in 1997 and then decreased to 3,691 t in 2001 and increased thereafter to 4,780 t in 2009. When compared to N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in 1990, N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in 2009 decreased in Deajeon (−6 t, −58%), Gwangju (−6 t, −42%), Busan (−2 t, −29%) and Seoul (−0.6 t, −53%). Total decreased CH4 emissions of these 4 local administrative districts were, however, only 16 t. Other 12 local administrative districts emitted 2,062 t more N2O in 2009 than in 1990. The decreased N2O emissions were only 0.7% of the increased N2O emissions, which made the decrease insignificant. With conversion of CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems to carbon dioxide equivalent emission (CO2-Eq), CO2-Eq increased from 5,559 kt in 1990 to 8,120 kt in 1996 and then decreased to 6,733 kt in 2001 and increased thereafter to 8,254 kt in 2009.

Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the effects of major livestock species on CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in Korea. Correlations of CH4 emissions from manure treatment system of swine, duck, and chicken to total CH4 emissions were high (r = 0.990, r = 0.923, and r = 0.861, respectively), which were much stronger than dairy (r = −0.328) and beef cattle (r = −0.119). Hence, monogastric livestock was the main contributor of CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems. Correlation coefficients of N2O emissions from beef cattle, dairy, swine, chicken, and duck to total N2O emissions from manure treatment systems were r = 0.604, r = −0.295, r = 0.693, r = 0.700, and r = 0.701, respectively. Hence, major livestock except for dairy had moderate correlation with total N2O emissions. With conversion of CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems to CO2-Eq, correlation coefficient of CO2-Eq from swine, duck, and chicken to total CO2-Eq emissions from manure treatment systems were r = 0.954, r = 0.918, and r = 0.880, respectively, which were much stronger than dairy (r = −0.376) and beef cattle (r = 0.143). Hence, monogastric livestock were main contributor of GHG emissions from manure treatment systems.

Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2.2%. In Korea, annual population growth rate of beef cattle, swine, chicken and duck were 2.6%, 4.0%, 3.3% and 16.0%, respectively, while annual dairy population growth rate was −0.7%. Zhou et al. (2007) reported that annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in China from 1949 to 2003 were 2.2%, 3.5%, and 3.0%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2.4%. They found swine was the main contributor of GHG emissions followed by goat and sheep.

Forecasted greenhouse gas emissions from 2010 to 2030 in 16 local administrative districts of Korea

Yearly CH4 and N2O emissions from 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 2010 and 2030 were forecasted and every 10 yr emission data are shown in Table 4. Yearly CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 2010 and 2030 were forecasted to increase steadily from 218,906 t in 2010 to 254,987 t in 2030. When compared to CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in 2010, CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in 2030 would decrease in Gyeonggi (−6,925 t, −18%), Daejeon (−150 t, −70%), and Seoul (−5 t, −13%). Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in other 13 local administrative districts would increase between 171 t and 13,929 t (11%–103%). The largest increase in CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation would happen in Gyeonsangnam (13,929 t, 66%).

The forecasted CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 2010 to 2030

Methane emissions from manure treatment systems in 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 2010 and 2030 were forecasted to increase from 123,010 t in 2010 to 156,185 t in 2030, which was 95,896 t-111,775 t (39%–46%) less than those from enteric fermentation. When compared to CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems in 2010, CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems in 2030 would decrease in Gyeonggi (−3,670 t, −12%), Busan (−75 t, −47%), Gwangju (−44 t, −38%), Daejeon (−13 t, −44%) and Seoul (−0.003 t, −0.01%). Methane emissions from manure treatment systems in other 11 local administrative districts would increase between 22 t and 9,898 t (4%–74%). The largest increase in CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems would happen in Chungcheongnam (9,898 t, 46%).

Nitrous oxide emissions from manure treatment systems in 16 local administrative districts of Korea between 2010 and 2030 were forecasted to increase from 5,034 t in 2010 to 6,814 t in 2030. When compared to N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in 2010, N2O emissions from manure treatment systems in 2030 would decrease in Gyeonggi (−52 t, −6%), Daejeoun (−2 t, −63%), and Seoul (−0.004 t, −0.4%). Nitrous oxide emissions from manure treatment systems in other 13 local administrative districts would increase between 3 t and 428 t (24%–110%). The largest increase in N2O emissions from manure treatment systems would happen in Chungcheongnam (428 t, 55%) as livestock population would increase more than 3 times in 2030 than in 2010. As a result, CO2-Eq converted from CH4 and N2O emissions from enteric fermentation and manure treatment systems would increase from 8,741 kt in 2010 to 10,747 kt in 2030.

Comparison of mean greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2030

Comparison of mean GHG emissions from 1990 to 2009 and forecasted GHG emissions from 2010 to 2030 is shown in Figure 1. Mean CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation between 2010 and 2030 were compared to those between 1990 and 2009. Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Seoul would emit 2,859 t (7%), 232 t (63%), and 20 t (36%) less mean CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. While Gyeongsangbuk, Jeollanam and Jeollabuk would emit 10,937 t (37%), 10,103 t (43%), and 10,098 t (64%) more mean CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. Other 10 local administrative districts would also emit between 19 t and 9,896 t (4%–114%) more mean CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009. Hence, CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation should be decreased by adapting low CH4 emission methods such as feeding low CH4 generating feed and increasing feed digestibility.

Figure 1

The CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture between 1990 and 2009 are shown in A to D. Forecasted CH4 and N2O emissions between 2010 and 2030 are shown in E to H. The average CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation are shown in A and E. The average CH4 emissions from manure treatment are shown in B and F. The average N2O emissions from manure treatment are shown in C and G. The average CO2-equivalent emissions are shown in D and H. Vertical bars represent standard deviation.

Mean CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 were compared to those between 1990 and 2009. Busan, Gwangju, Daejeon and Seoul would emit 173 t (60%), 88 t (48%), 74 t (77%), and 2 t (8%) less mean CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. While Chungcheongnam, Gyeongsangbuk and Jeollabuk would emit 9,957 t (60%), 6,655 t (59%), and 6,141 t (67%) more mean CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. Other 9 local administrative districts would also emit between 88 t and 6,073 t (3%–124%) more mean CH4 emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009.

Mean N2O emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 were compared to those between 1990 and 2009. Daejeon, Seoul, and Gwangju would emit 4 t (60%), 0.04 t (4%), and 0.02 t (0.2%) less mean N2O emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. While Chungcheongnam, Jeollabuk, and Gyeongsangbuk would emit 406 t (68%), 340 t (90%), and 325 t (55%) more mean N2O emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. Other 10 local administrative districts would also emit between 1 t and 283 t (10%-153%) more mean N2O emissions from manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009. The largest increase of CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems would happen in Chungcheongnam. That was caused by the increase of excreted manure as livestock population forecasted to increase more than 170%. Hence measures to decrease CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems should be prepared.

Mean CO2-Eq from enteric fermentation and manure treatment systems between 2010 and 2030 were compared to those between 1990 and 2009. Gyeonggi, Daejeon, Busan, Gwangju, and Seoul would emit 22 kt (1%), 8 kt (65%), 3 kt (18%), 1 kt (8%), and 0.5 kt (24%) less mean CO2-Eq between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. While Chungcheongnam, Gyeongsangbuk, and Jeollabuk would emit 543 kt (50%), 470 kt (46%), and 447 kt (70%) more mean CO2-Eq between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009, respectively. Other 8 local administrative districts would also emit between 15 kt and 367 kt (31%–120%) more mean CO2-Eq between 2010 and 2030 than between 1990 and 2009. The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts were only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts.

Measures to increase accuracy and reliability

The most difficult task to calculate GHG emissions from 16 local administrative districts was to collect activity data, especially manure treatment systems, of 16 local administrative districts. Methane and N2O emissions from manure treatment systems depended on the location and type of manure treatment systems, and mean temperature where manure treatment systems were located, but it was hard to find official statistical data. Livestock population data was collected by national statistical system, but the high variability made the population forecast difficult.

Uncertainties of activity data such as statistics of livestock population and manure treatment system were obstacles to calculate GHG emissions accurately, so that national approach to improve statistics related to GHG inventory would be key issue. Hence, local administrative districts’ effort on activity data accuracy is essential to improve GHG inventories. In addition, direct measurements of GHG emissions from enteric fermentation and manure treatment systems are indispensable.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by the Rural Development Administration and the Korea Energy Economics Institute.

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Article information Continued

Figure 1

The CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture between 1990 and 2009 are shown in A to D. Forecasted CH4 and N2O emissions between 2010 and 2030 are shown in E to H. The average CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation are shown in A and E. The average CH4 emissions from manure treatment are shown in B and F. The average N2O emissions from manure treatment are shown in C and G. The average CO2-equivalent emissions are shown in D and H. Vertical bars represent standard deviation.

Table 1

Population of Major livestock in Korea between year 1990 and 2009

Beef cattle (head)
Dairy (head)
Swine (head)
Chicken (head)
1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009
Seoul 248 201 439 572 211 86 2,776 2,034 12 35,167 998 0
Gyeonggi 162,159 148,844 265,871 234,742 204,382 174,191 1,440,611 1,967,773 1,830,041 26,488,670 26,880,825 32,011,008
Incheon 1,163 15,026 19,338 7,892 7,291 3,563 32,913 100,367 46,084 425,914 504,552 808,602
Chungcheongnam 213,643 230,602 343,916 65,800 84,861 83,738 757,363 1,320,661 1,786,094 8,765,832 15,721,716 26,438,696
Daejeon 7,154 4,346 4,737 1,706 293 0 17,125 5,821 2,777 330,515 209,966 90,000
Chungcheongbuk 111,703 111,020 183,081 22,124 29,855 23,396 186,389 392,261 553,852 3,041,583 6,732,073 10,375,922
Jeollabuk 115,966 150,732 305,788 26,549 44,274 33,346 319,891 889,920 1,150,669 5,672,687 13,785,520 20,344,929
Jeollanam 233,539 231,546 439,477 27,883 38,521 30,647 352,662 780,375 830,273 3,774,475 11,242,879 14,002,271
Gwangju 10,162 3,352 6,356 2,778 1,213 605 12,326 11,266 6,733 564,659 203,368 93,000
Gangwon 142,474 106,186 212,362 20,517 24,340 17,468 183,782 357,998 421,307 3,964,021 4,422,762 4,673,274
Gyeongsangbuk 315,677 302,414 510,744 45,341 51,961 39,376 526,327 986,102 1,209,310 11,596,528 14,486,582 20,024,887
Daegu 9,265 16,375 19,562 2,768 5,821 2,781 22,675 38,824 20,612 308,903 293,249 363,600
Gyeongsangnam 259,326 221,540 268,676 40,058 41,739 29,112 547,107 948,462 1,167,616 7,841,607 5,940,335 7,515,661
Busan 1,145 2,022 1,959 1,929 1,293 663 16,869 39,535 14,564 848,514 163,434 89,880
Ulsan - 24,082 24,207 - 2,096 980 - 37,325 35,689 - 658,475 517,690
Jeju 38,030 21,732 28,192 3,288 5,557 4,696 109,192 335,645 509,270 804,015 1,300,049 1,418,123

Table 2

The CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2009

CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (t/yr)
CH4 emissions from manure treatment (t/yr)
N2O emissions from manure treatment (t/yr)
CO2-equivalent emissions* (kt/yr)
1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009 1990 2000 2009
G 87 43 38 58 30 6 1 1 1 3 2 1
Gyeonggi 39,159 35,934 38,130 26,498 29,188 26,515 683 769 817 1,591 1,606 1,611
Incheon 1,066 1,873 1,552 745 1,293 633 15 40 30 43 79 55
Chungcheongnam 20,421 24,867 31,242 10,592 16,622 20,838 384 567 767 770 1,047 1,332
Daejeon 611 284 260 258 76 30 11 6 5 22 9 8
Chungcheongbuk 8,877 10,386 13,535 3,031 5,314 6,477 147 225 313 296 399 517
Jeollabuk 9,838 14,983 22,139 4,475 10,531 12,455 188 384 566 359 655 902
Jeollanam 16,280 18,656 28,546 4,899 9,337 9,666 274 429 598 530 721 988
Gwangju 893 351 428 288 181 107 14 8 8 29 14 14
Gangwon 10,309 9,345 14,131 2,970 4,634 4,874 172 195 274 332 354 484
Gyeongsangbuk 23,007 24,135 33,860 7,640 11,947 13,430 413 524 722 772 920 1,217
Daegu 860 1,654 1,417 367 687 363 14 27 23 30 57 44
Gyeongsangnam 19,412 18,650 19,776 7,360 10,749 11,944 355 418 479 672 747 815
Busan 319 329 231 275 414 166 9 11 6 15 19 10
Ulsan - 1,599 1,481 - 475 394 - 30 29 - 53 48
Jeju 2,577 2,487 3,214 1,163 3,198 4,627 54 94 142 95 149 209
Total 153,716 165,576 209,980 70,619 104,676 112,525 2,734 3,728 4,780 5,559 6,831 8,255
Annual growth rate (%, 1990–2009) 1.7 2.6 3.2 2.2
*

CO2-equivalent emissions = CH4 (25) and N2O (298) according to 2006 IPCC GL.

Table 3

Correlation analysis between major livestock species and CH4 and N2O emissions of livestock categories in Korea from 1990 to 2009

Enteric CH4 Manure related CH4 Manure related N2O Manure related CO2 equivalent
Beef cattle G −0.119 0.604 0.143
Dairy 0.120 −0.328 −0.295 −0.376
Swine −0.098 0.990 0.693 0.954
Chicken NE* 0.861 0.700 0.880
Duck NE 0.923 0.701 0.918
*

NE = Not estimated according to IPCC (2006).

Table 4

The forecasted CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 2010 to 2030

CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (t/yr)
CH4 emissions from manure treatment (t/yr)
N2O emissions from manure treatment (t/yr)
CO2-equivalent emissions* (kt/yr)
2010 2020 2030 2010 2020 2030 2010 2020 2030 2010 2020 2030
Seoul 39 35 34 26 25 26 1 1 1 2 2 2
Gyeonggi 38,301 35,778 31,376 30,640 28,874 26,970 861 848 809 1,715 1,620 1,476
Incheon 1,773 2,190 2,625 1,022 1,060 1,093 39 47 56 71 83 95
Chungcheongnam 31,810 37,104 38,035 21,704 26,573 31,602 780 1,000 1,208 1,366 1,647 1,837
Daejeon 214 138 64 29 21 16 4 3 1 6 4 2
Chungcheongbuk 13,656 15,694 15,783 6,559 7,267 7,822 312 373 410 521 598 623
Jeollabuk 23,150 26,083 26,509 12,765 15,312 17,601 574 717 842 932 1,092 1,187
Jeollanam 29,639 33,949 34,101 10,647 11,713 12,493 656 765 815 1,049 1,196 1,231
Gwangju 398 520 654 118 92 74 8 10 11 13 16 19
Gangwon 14,751 16,984 17,192 5,643 6,966 8,256 290 347 378 518 611 651
Gyeongsangbuk 36,797 40,418 40,862 14,628 17,896 21,177 769 911 1,021 1,318 1,507 1,619
Daegu 1,643 1,944 2,244 579 612 639 26 31 35 55 63 71
Gyeongsangnam 21,211 28,139 35,139 13,091 16,175 19,293 514 671 832 880 1,139 1,401
Busan 265 333 436 159 111 84 7 10 14 11 12 15
Ulsan 1,589 2,033 2,485 513 524 535 32 39 46 54 66 78
Jeju 3,669 5,446 7,449 4,887 6,692 8,505 159 240 334 229 329 439
Total 218,905 246,788 254,988 123,010 139,913 156,186 5,032 6,013 6,813 8,740 9,985 10,746
*

CO2-equivalent emissions = CH4 (25) and N2O (298) according to 2006 IPCC GL.