Go to Top Go to Bottom
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2009;22(6): 819-826.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80682    Published online April 30, 2009.
Linolenic Acid in Association with Malate or Fumarate Increased CLA Production and Reduced Methane Generation by Rumen Microbes
X. Z. Li, S. H. Choi, G. L. Jin, C. G. Yan, R. J. Long, C. Y. Liang, M. K. Song*
Correspondence:  M. K. Song,
Abstract
An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effect of malate or fumarate on fermentation characteristics, and production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and methane (CH4) by rumen microbes when incubated with linolenic acid (??C18:3). Sixty milligrams of ??C18:3 alone (LNA), or ??C18:3 with 24 mM malic acid (M-LNA) or ??C18:3 with 24 mM fumaric acid (F-LNA) were added to the 150 ml culture solution consisting of 75 ml strained rumen fluid and 75ml McDougall??s artificial saliva. Culture solution for incubation was also made without malate, fumarate and ??C18:3 (Control). Two grams of feed consisting of 70% concentrate and 30% ground alfalfa (DM basis) were also added to the culture solution of each treatment. In vitro incubation was made anaerobically in a shaking incubator up to 12 h at 39??C. Supplementation of malate (M-LNA) or fumarate (F-LNA) increased pH at 6 h (p<0.01) and 12 h (p<0.001) incubation times compared to control and linolenic acid (LNA) treatments. Both malate and fumarate did not influence the ammonia-N concentration. Concentration of total VFA in culture solution was higher for M-LNA and F-LNA supplementation than for control and LNA treatments from 6 h (p<0.040) to 12 h (p<0.027) incubation times, but was not different between malate and fumarate for all incubation times. Molar proportion of C3 was increased by F-LNA and M-LNA supplementation from 6 h (p<0.0001) to 12 h (p<0.004) incubation times compared to control and LNA treatments. No differences in C3 proportion, however, were observed between M-LNA and F-LNA treatments. Accumulated total gas production for 12h incubation was increased (p<0.0002) by M-LNA or F-LNA compared to control or LNA treatment. Accumulated CH4 production for 12 h incubation, however, was greatly reduced (p<0.0002) by supplementing malate or fumarate compared to the control, and its production from M-LNA or F-LNA treatment was smaller than that from LNA treatment. Methane production from LNA, M-LNA or F-LNA treatment was steadily lower (p<0.01 - p<0.001) from 3 h incubation time than that from the control, and was also lower for M-LNA or F-LNA treatment at incubation times of 6 h (p<0.01) and 9 h (p<0.001) than for LNA treatment. Methane production from LNA, however, was reduced (p<0.01 - p<0.001) from 3 h to 9 h incubation times compared to the control. Both malate and fumarate increased concentration of trans11-C18:1 from 3 h to 12 h incubation (p<0.01), cis9,trans11-CLA up to 6 h incubation (p<0.01 - p<0.01), trans10,cis12-CLA at 3 h (p<0.05) and 12 h (p<0.01), and total CLA for all incubation times (p<0.05) compared to corresponding values for the ??C18:3 supplemented treatment (LNA). In conclusion, malate and fumarate rechanneled the metabolic H2 pathway to production of propionate and CLA, and depressed the process of bio-hydrogenation and methane generation. Linolenic acid alone would also be one of the optimistic alternatives to suppress the CH4 generation.
Keywords: Malate; Fumarate; Methane; Bio-hydrogenation; Linolenic Acid; Conjugated Linoleic Acid


Editorial Office
Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies(AAAP)
Room 708 Sammo Sporex, 23, Sillim-ro 59-gil, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08776, Korea   
TEL : +82-2-888-6558    FAX : +82-2-888-6559   
E-mail : jongkha@hotmail.com               

Copyright © 2020 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. All rights reserved.

Close layer
prev next