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Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2009;22(2): 267-274.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80355    Published online January 6, 2009.
Effect of Wood Vinegar on the Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Microflora in Weanling Pigs
J. Y. Choi, P. L. Shinde, I. K. Kwon, Y. H. Song, B. J. Chae*
Correspondence:  B. J. Chae,
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of wood vinegar in weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, weanling pigs (n = 224; LandraceYorkshireDuroc, 213 d-old, initial BW 6.120.10 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments. Different levels of wood vinegar were added to the diets as dietary treatments (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%). Each treatment comprised 4 replicates with 14 piglets in each. Experimental feeding was conducted for 28 d in two phases (phase I, d 0 to 14 and phase II, d 15 to 28). Feeding of wood vinegar linearly (p<0.05) improved the phase I, phase II and overall ADG and increased (linear, p<0.05) the overall and phase II ADFI. Linear improvements in the apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter (p = 0.013), gross energy (p = 0.019) and crude protein (p = 0.033) were observed as the level of wood vinegar was increased in the diet of pigs. Experiment 2 was conducted to compare dietary wood vinegar with commonly used growth promoters, organic acid (mixture of 21% phosphoric acid, 3.25% propionic acid, 2.8% formic acid, 10% calcium formate and 5% calcium propionate) and antibiotic (aparamycin). A total of 288 weanling piglets (LandraceYorkshireDuroc, 222 d-old, initial BW 6.620.31 kg) were assigned to four treatments with four replicates (18 piglets/pen) for 28 days and fed in 2 phases: phase I, d 0 to 14 and phase II, d 15 to 28. The dietary treatments were control (corn-soybean meal basal diet without antibiotics) and diets containing 0.2% antibiotic, 0.2% organic acid and 0.2% wood vinegar. Pigs fed antibiotic showed higher (p<0.001) ADG and better feed efficiency followed by pigs fed wood vinegar and organic acid diets while those fed the control diet had lowest ADG and poorest feed efficiency. The overall and phase I ADFI was highest (p<0.001) in pigs fed wood vinegar and lowest in pigs fed the control diet. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in pigs fed the antibiotic diet when compared with pigs fed the control but comparable among pigs fed antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar diets. Higher populations of Lactobacillus (p = 0.004) were noted in the ileum of pigs fed the wood vinegar diet, while the population of coliforms in the ileum and cecum was higher (p<0.001) in pigs fed the control diet when compared with pigs fed antibiotic, organic acid or wood vinegar diets. These results indicated that wood vinegar could improve the performance of weanling pigs by improving the nutrient digestibility and reducing harmful intestinal coliforms; moreover performance of pigs fed wood vinegar was superior to those fed organic acid.
Keywords: Wood Vinegar; Performance; Nutrient Digestibility; Intestinal Microflora; Weanling Pigs


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