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Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2008;21(4): 574-581.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70242    Published online March 4, 2008.
The Effect of Roselle (Hibicus sabdariffa Linn.) Calyx as Antioxidant and Acidifier on Growth Performance in Postweaning Pigs
Wantana Aphirakchatsakun, Kris Angkanaporn, Suwanna Kijparkorn*
Correspondence:  Suwanna Kijparkorn,
Abstract
Two experiments, involving a total of 100 crossbred pigs (Hampshire??Landrace??Duroc) aged 5 weeks, were used to evaluate the effect of Roselle (Hibicus sabdariffa Linn.) calyx as an antioxidant and acidifier on growth performance. Experiment 1: growth performance response of pigs fed basal corn-soy diet was compared with that of pigs consuming diets that contained 4, 8 and 12% Roselle in powder form, 4 g/kg acidifier (Fra??Acid Dry) or 100 mg/kg antibiotic (Aurofac??. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Twenty-four castrated male and twelve female pigs were randomly allocated into 6 treatments which comprised 3 replicates (2 male and 1 female) of 2 pigs each. The results demonstrated no beneficial weight gain and feed intake response among treatments at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of age (p>0.05). However, feed-to-gain ratios (FCR) of Roselle-fed groups were significantly different from the basal-diet group at 7 weeks of age (p<0.05). Pigs fed with 8% Roselle had the lowest FCR. Therefore, 8% was set as an appropriate level of Roselle in feed. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine antioxidant and acidifier properties. Pigs were fed similar diets to Experiment 1 except that Roselle was fed to only one treatment at the level of 8%. Sixty-four piglets, 32 castrated male and female each were randomly allocated into 4 treatments which comprised 4 replicates (2 male and 2 female) of 4 pigs each. Body weight was measured. At 7 and 9 weeks of age, four pigs from each treatment were randomly selected. The pH in their gastrointestinal tract, pepsin activity in stomach mucosa, trypsin activity in the pancreas and protein and fat digestibility in the ileum were measured to investigate acidifier properties. For antioxidant properties, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione concentration in plasma and liver were used as parameters. The results showed no significant difference in weight gain, pH or pepsin activity among all treatments at both ages (p>0.05). Nevertheless, trypsin activity and fat digestibility of the Roselle-fed group were higher than the basal-diet group at 7 weeks of age (p<0.05). Glutathione in plasma was significantly different between antibiotic-fed and basal-diet groups (p<0.05). Significant differences were found only in some parameters and between the basal-diet group and the other groups. Therefore, it cannot be precisely concluded that Roselle in powder form has clear acidifier and antioxidant properties in postweaning pigs. Further studies should be undertaken to clearly confirm both properties.
Keywords: Roselle; Antioxidant; Acidifier; Growth Performances; Enzyme Activity; Malondialdehyde; Ileal Digestibility


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