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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 21(3); 2008 > Article
Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2008;21(3): 434-442.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.60480    Published online March 4, 2008.
The Optimum Methionine to Methionine Plus Cystine Ratio for Growing Pigs Determined Using Plasma Urea Nitrogen and Nitrogen Balance
Shiyan Qiao, Xiangshu Piao, Zhanyu Feng, Yuhua Ding*, Longyao Yue, P. A. Thacker
Correspondence:  Yuhua Ding,
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the optimum ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine for growing pigs. A nitrogen balance trial was conducted using a total of 21 barrows (Large WhiteLandrace) over two replicates. The initial body weight was 20.361.22 kg (meanSD) in the first replicate and 23.541.02 kg (meanSD) in the second. For each replicate, the 21 pigs were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments with three observations per treatment. The diets included a methionine and cystine-deficient basal diet with all other essential nutrients meeting nutrient requirements and six diets formulated with graded levels of DL-methionine (0.00, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.13, 0.16%) and L-Cystine·HClH2O (0.19, 0.15, 0.11, 0.07, 0.04, 0.00%). This resulted in ratios of methionine to methionine plus cystine of 41.3, 29.6, 35.3, 41.2, 46.0, 51.6 and 57.5%. Each experimental period lasted 12 days consisting of a seven-day adaptation period followed by a five-day total collection of urine and feces. During the collection period, pigs were fed 900 g/day for the first replicate and 1,200 g/day for the second replicate. The feed was provided in three equal portions at 0800, 1500, and 2200 h daily. Pigs had ad libitum access to water after feeding. There was a linear (p<0.01) and quadratic (p<0.01) effect on daily gain and feed conversion as the ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine increased. Pigs receiving the diets providing a methionine to methionine plus cystine ratio of 51.6% had the best daily gain and feed conversion. Plasma urea nitrogen was also lowest for this treatment. Nitrogen retention increased (p<0.01) as the relative proportion of methionine increased up to 51.6% and then a downward trend occurred at 57.5%. The quadratic regression model, as well as one- and two- slope regression line models, were used to determine the optimum ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine. Eliminating the 35.3% methionine to methionine plus cystine treatment resulted in R2 values in excess of 0.92. The optimal ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine was estimated to be 54.15% for nitrogen retention and 56.72% for plasma urea nitrogen.
Keywords: Pigs; Methionine; Cystine; Ratio; Nitrogen Retention; Plasma Urea Nitrogen
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