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Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2007;20(6): 976-982.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.976    Published online May 2, 2007.
Effects of Supplementing with Single or Multiple Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Fecal Mineral Excretion and Nutrient Utilization in Pullets from 1 to 18 Weeks of Age
L. L. Zhong, J. H. Yao*, N. Cheng, Y. J. Sun, Y. R. Liu, Y. J. Wang, X. Q. Sun, H. B. Xi
Correspondence:  J. H. Yao,
Abstract
This study investigated whether supplemental Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn are needed in a practical diet for pullets. Four hundred and twenty females of an egg-laying strain (1-d-old, Lohmann Brown Layer) were randomly distributed into 4 groups, consisting of 7 replicates of 15 birds each. During the 18-week experimental period, chicks were given three basal diets in sequence, each with single or multiple Mn, Zn and Cu supplementation to improve the mineral balance gradually. In the Control, no Mn, Zn, and Cu were added; in the single Mn supplemented group (sMn) Mn was added to 120, 60, and 60 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn and Zn supplemented group (mMnZn), Mn was added to 180, 90, and 90 mg/kg and Zn was added to 120, 105, and 105 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn, Zn, Cu supplemented group (mMnZnCu), Mn, Zn, and Cu were added to the same multiple of basal Fe concentration relative to NRC (1994) recommendations. Energy and protein metabolizability were determined by subtracting energy/protein intake by energy/protein excretion (from both feces and urine) and dividing by energy/protein intake. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of feed intake, final body weight or tibia length throughout the experiment. Optimal growth performance was observed in the Control, while adding trace minerals to basal diets tended to result in decreased productive performance. Protein metabolizability was increased by mMnZn and mMnZnCu treatments, but energy metabolizability was not affected. Concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cu in excreta varied greatly related to dietary content, and the retentions of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were all increased due to the improvement of mineral balance. Based on these results, it is suggested that the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in typical basal diets used in this study were adequate for normal growth for pullets from 1 to 18 weeks of age.
Keywords: Trace Mineral; Pullet; Mineral Excretion; Growth Performance


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