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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 19(11); 2006 > Article
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2006;19(11): 1623-1631.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1623    Published online September 29, 2006.
Utilization of Steam-treated Oil Palm Fronds in Growing Saanen Goats: II. Supplementation with Energy and Urea
Pramote Paengkoum, J. B. Liang, Z. A. Jelan, M. Basery
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein and energy on goats fed oil palm fronds (OPF) as roughages. Twenty-four male Saanen goats aged between 7 and 8 months and weighing 23.4??.6 kg were used in a 2?? factorial design. Factors were three levels of urea (3%, 4% or 5%) and two levels of energy (low energy (LE) or high energy (HE)). On average, all parameters measured, including dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, digestible nutrient intakes, ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N), ruminal total volatile fatty acid (total VFA) and individual VFA concentrations (mM/L), microbial N supply, P/E ratio and N retention were higher for HE compared to LE diets. Significant (p<0.05) interactions were found between levels of urea and energy for non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and energy (DE) digestibilities, ruminal NH3-N and total VFA concentrations. HE diets had higher N absorption and retention than LE diets. Interactions between urea and energy for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), heat production (HP), and urine and faeces N excretion were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the HE diets than those recorded for the LE diets. The results indicated that supplementation of energy enhanced utilization of urea and resulted in higher animal performance as a consequence of improved ruminal fermentation, microbial yield and N balance. However, the optimal level of urea supplementation remained at 3% in the HE diet.
Keywords: Urea; Fermentable Energy; Microbial N Supply; Oil Palm Fronds; Saanen Goats


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