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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 19(9); 2006 > Article
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2006;19(9): 1305-1313.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1305    Published online August 2, 2006.
Utilization of Steam-treated Oil Palm Fronds in Growing Goats: 1. Supplementation with Dietary Urea
Pramote Paengkoum*, J. B. Liang, Z. A. Jelan, M. Basery
Correspondence:  Pramote Paengkoum,
Abstract
Five male dairy goats (Saanen), 4.6 month old with a body weight of 21.4 (SD??.6) kg, were used to examine 5 dietary urea treatments in a 5?? Latin Square experimental design. The five levels of urea were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g urea/kg DM of steam- treated oil palm fronds (OPF) and dry matter intake tended (p>0.05) to increase with increasing urea supplementation up to 30 g/kg OPF (77.7 g/kg BW0.75), but decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g urea/kg OPF (67.4 and 63.7 g/kg BW0.75, respectively) supplementation. Similarly, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibilities increased (p<0.05) with the addition of urea to 30 g/kg OPF but thereafter decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g/kg OPF. Ruminal pH, ruminal NH3-N concentration and plasma urea concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) as a consequence of addition of urea to the diet. Excretion of total purine derivatives (PD) by goats fed 30 g of urea/kg OPF was highest (p<0.05) followed by goats fed 20, 40, 10 and 50 g of urea/kg OPF. Microbial N (g N/day) and efficiency of microbial N supply expressed as g N/kg organic matter apparently digested in the rumen were higher (p<0.05) in goats fed 30 g of urea/kg OPF (5.5 g N/day and 22.0 g N/ kg DOMR, respectively) than in goats on 10 and 50 g of urea/kg OPF treatments. However, the former did not differ from goats fed 20 g of urea/kg OPF (3.9 g N/day and 16.6 g N/kg DMOR, respectively). Ruminal VFA concentration, protein/energy ratio, N absorption and N retention increased (p<0.05) with the addition of urea to the diet up to 30 g/kg OPF but decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g/kg OPF. This implies that the optimal level of urea supplementation in an OPF based diet was about 30 g urea/kg OPF.
Keywords: Fermentable Protein; Urea; Oil Palm Fronds; Dairy Goats


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