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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 17(11); 2004 > Article
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2004;17(11): 1553-1561.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1553    Published online January 1, 2004.
Effect of Scavenging and Protein Supplement on the Feed Intake and Performance of Improved Pullets and Laying Hens in Northern Vietnam
Do Viet Minh, Jan Erik Lindberg, Brian Ogle
Abstract
Two feeding trials were conducted with 128 pullets from 4 to 20 weeks of age and 96 laying hens from 23 to 63 weeks of age to evaluate the effects of scavenging and type of protein supplement on the feed intake and performance of improved pullets and laying hens. The experiments had a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments and four replicates. Treatments were: Control (Cont), scavenging but with access to a balanced concentrate at night; confinement (CF) and given the control feed ad libitum; scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with soybean meal replaced by cassava leaf meal (CLM); scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with fishmeal replaced by soybean meal (SBM). The mean daily dry matter (DMI), metabolizable energy (MEI) and crude protein intakes (CPI) of the pullets and laying hens, respectively, were 28%, and 18% higher for the confinement treatment (CF) compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). The DMI, MEI and CPI of the pullets were not significantly different among scavenging treatments (p>0.05), but for the layers DMI, MEI and CPI were significantly higher for the CLM and SBM treatments compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.001). In the growing period, the average daily weight gain (ADG), supplement feed conversion ratio (FCR) and supplement feed cost/kg eggs (FCS) were not significantly different for CF compared to Cont, and among scavenging treatments (p>0.05). In the laying period, the hen-day production was significantly lower, and supplement FCR and FCS significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). Egg weight, and yolk, albumen and shell percentage and shape index were not significantly different among the scavenging treatments (p>0.05). However, shell and yolk percentages were significantly lower for the CF compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.01). Mortality was significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments for pullets, and was significantly lower for the CF compared to scavenging treatments for laying hens (p<0.001). It was concluded that scavenging pullets and layers were getting around 28% and 18%, respectively, of their nutrient requirements from scavenging activities, resulting in correspondingly lower supplement feed conversion ratios and feed costs. Daily gains of the pullets were not affected by scavenging or protein supplement, but egg production and mortality were lower for the confined hens.
Keywords: Scavenging; Protein Supplement; Pullets; Layers


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