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Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2004;17(8): 1131-1138.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1131    Published online January 1, 2004.
Effects of Different Dietary Acidifier Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus on Ammonia, Methane and Odorant Emission from Growing-finishing Pigs
I. B. Kim, P. R. Ferket, W. J. Powers, H. H. Stein, T. A. T. G. van Kempen
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of Ca and P on urine and ileal digesta pH, and ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and odor emission. In experiment 1, eight pigs (commercial three-way cross; initial BW 67 3 kg) were arranged in a repeated 4 4 Latin Square design. All pigs were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control in which dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and limestone (CaCO3) were used as the sources of inorganic P and Ca. In Diets 2 and 3, H3PO4, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and CaSO4 replaced DCP and CaCO3 as the inorganic sources of P and Ca. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 1 except that it was fortified with HCl to provide an acid load similar to that of diet 2. Urine and ileal digesta pH were determined in pigs fed each of these diets. In Exp. 1, urine pH decreased (p<0.05) in animals consuming diets containing H3PO4-CaSO4 (5.85 0.38) and MCP-CaSO4 (5.73 0.30) compared with the DCP-CaCO3 diet (6.89 0.24). In the pigs consuming H3PO4-CaSO4, ileal digesta pH decreased compared with the control (5.52 0.28 vs. 6.66 0.17; p<0.05). Based on the results of Exp. 1, a total of four trials were performed in environmental chambers for determining how NH3, CH4, and odor were affected by the different dietary Ca and P sources (Exp. 2). In Exp. 2, pigs fed the H3PO4-CaSO4 diet had decreased (30%) NH3 emissions compared with the control (p<0.05). Also, a combination of MCP-CaCO3-CaCl2 decreased NH3 emission by 15% (p<0.05). Emission of CH4 was decreased only with the H3PO4-CaSO4 diet with 14% (p<0.05). Odorant emission of phenolics and volatile fatty acids increased roughly three-fold with the DCP-CaSO4 diet but was not affected by other test diets. In conclusion, acidogenic Ca and P sources in swine diets can decrease the urinary pH and reduce NH3 and CH4 emission from swine facilities.
Keywords: Ammonia; Methane; Odor; Phosphorus; Calcium; Acidifiers

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