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Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2003;16(6): 910-927.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.910    Published online January 1, 2003.
Transgenesis and Germ Cell Engineering in Domestic Animals
C. K. Lee, J. A. Piedrahita
Transgenesis is a very powerful tool not only to help understanding the basics of life science but also to improve the efficiency of animal production. Since the first transgenic mouse was born in 1980, rapid development and wide application of this technique have been made in laboratory animals as well as in domestic animals. Although pronuclear injection is the most widely used method and nuclear transfer using somatic cells broadens the choice of making transgenic domestic animals, the demand for precise manipulation of the genome leads to the utilization of gene targeting. To make this technique possible, a pluripotent embryonic cell line such as embryonic stem (ES) cell is required to carry genetic mutation to further generations. However, ES cell, well established in mice, is not available in domestic animals even though many attempt to establish the cell line. An alternate source of pluripotent cells is embryonic germ (EG) cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGCs). To make gene targeting feasible in this cell line, a better culture system would help to minimize the unnecessary loss of cells in vitro. In this review, general methods to produce transgenic domestic animals will be mentioned. Also, it will focus on germ cell engineering and methods to improve the establishment of pluripotent embryonic cell lines in domestic animals.
Keywords: Transgenic Animal; Embryonic Stem Cell; Embryonic Germ Cell; Apoptosis
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