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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 16(6); 2003 > Article
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2003;16(6): 903-909.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.903    Published online January 1, 2003.
Energy Utilization of Growing Chicks in Various Nutritional Conditions
Kunio Sugahara
Abstract
For the last two decades, energy utilization of growing chicks has been studied more and more. This paper focuses on the energy utilization estimated by the metabolizable energy (ME) values and the efficiency at which ME is used for growth of chicks under various nutritional environment. Degree of saturation of dietary fats is responsible for nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of fats. The effect of dietary fat sources on heat production depends on the kind of unsaturated fatty acids as well as the degree of saturation. Medium chain triglyceride shows lower AME and net energy than long chain triglyceride. Phytase as feed additives increases the AME values of the diet along with improvement of the phosphorous utilization. Ostriches have higher ability to metabolize the energy of fiber-rich foodstuffs than fowls. Their higher ability seems to be associated with fermentation of fiber in the hindgut. Proportions of macronutrients in the diets have influenced not only the gain of body protein and energy but also the oxidative phosphorylation of the chicken liver. Essential amino acids deficiency reduces ME/GE (energy metabolizability) little, if any. Growing chicks respond to a deficiency of single essential amino acids with the reduction of energy retained as protein and increased energy retained as fat. Thus, energy retention is proportional to ME intake despite deficiency, and efficiency of ME utilization is not affected by deficiency of amino acids. Effect of oral administration of clenbuterol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on the utilization of ME varies with the dose of the agents. Although the heat production related to eating behavior has been estimated less than 5% of ME, tube-feeding diets decreases HI by about 30%.
Keywords: Metabolizable Energy; Heat Increment; Protein; Fat; Amino Acids; Chicks


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