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Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2002;15(10): 1445-1452.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1445    Published online January 1, 2002.
Studies on the Mode of Uptake of Plasma Glucose, Acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate Triglyceride Fatty Acids and Glycerol by the Mammary Gland of Crossbred Holstein Cattle Feeding on Different Types of Roughage
N. Chaiyabutr, S. Thammacharoen, S. Komolvanich, S. Chanpongsang
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out to study the utilization of substrates in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein Friesian during feeding on different types of roughage. Sixteen pregnant crossbred Holstein heifers consisted of two breed types of eight animals each; Holstein Friesian Red Sindhi (50:50=50%HF) and Holstein Friesian Red Sindhi (87.5:12.5=87.5%HF). Animals were divided into four groups of the same breed type in each group which were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. Four consecutive experimental periods were carried out in late pregnancy (20-23 days before parturition), early lactation (30 days postpartum), mid-lactation (120 days postpartum) and late lactation (210 days postpartum). Measurement of mammary blood flow in combining with measurement of AV difference was performed for the mammary uptake of substrates. In the period of lactation, udder blood flow was nearly three times higher than that of late pregnant period (p<0.05) in both 50%HF and 87.5%HF feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. During mid- and late lactation of both groups of 87.5%HF animals, mammary blood flow and milk yield showed decrease when compared to those during the early lactating period while the trends for persistency were apparent in both groups of 50%HF animals throughout experimental periods. The mean arterial plasma concentrations of glucose, acetate, -hydroxybutyrate and free glycerol in each group remained constant throughout experimental periods. During late pregnancy in all groups, the AV difference and extraction ratio of glucose, -hydroxybutyrate and triacylglycerol across the mammary gland markedly lowered (p<0.05), which coincided with a lower net uptake by the mammary gland in comparison to the early lactating period. The mean arterial plasma concentration, AV difference and extraction ratio for acetate showed no significant differences between late pregnancy and the early lactating period. The AV difference of free glycerol showed apparent release from mammary tissue during late pregnancy in all groups. In mid- and late lactation, the mammary uptake for glucose, acetate and -hydroxybutyrate in both groups of 87.5%HF animals showed apparent decrease as compared to that in the early lactating period, whereas no appearances were observed in 50%HF animals feeding either hay or urea treated rice straw. The mean arterial plasma concentrations for free fatty acid (FFA) and triacylglycerol (C16 to C18) were higher in late pregnancy than in early lactation in both types of crossbred animals. The values of AV difference and the net uptake by the mammary gland for FFA were variable during late pregnancy and lactating periods in all groups. There were no significant differences for AV difference, extraction ratio and net uptake of triacylglycerol during lactation advance in both groups of 50%HF and 87.5%HF animals feeding either hay or urea treated rice straw. These results suggest that the adaptations to either hay or urea treated rice straw by the mammary gland of crossbred HF animals allow for an adequate nutrient supply during pregnancy and lactation. There is no difference in the mode of mammary uptake of substrates in the same crossbred animals in response to feeding hay or urea treated rice straw. The differences in utilizing nutrients by the mammary gland for milk production between 87.5%HF and 50%HF animals would be dependent on changes in both intra-mammary factors and extra-mammary factors.
Keywords: Mammary Gland Uptake; Crossbred Holstein Cattle; Substrates; Roughage


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