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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 13(11); 2000 > Article
Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(11): 1584-1592.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.1584    Published online November 1, 2000.
Effects of Sodium Sulfite and Extrusion on the Nutritional Value of Soybean Products for Nursery Pigs
L. L. Burnham, I. H. Kim, J. O. Kang, H. W. Rhee, J. D. Hancock
Abstract
Three hundred nursery pigs were used in two growth assays (avg initial BW of 6.5 and 6.0 kg, respectively) to determine the effects of sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) as an extrusion aid for soy products used in diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, treatments were arranged as 3횞2 factorial with main effects of soy product [soybean meal (SBM), extruded SBM, and dry-extruded whole soybeans (DEWS)] and concentration of Na2SO3 (0 and 10 g/kg of soy product). The extruded SBM and DEWS treatments were processed in a dry extruder (Insta-Pro , Triple F Nutrition, Des Moines, IA) with barrel temperatures and throughputs of 169째C and 578 kg/h, and 147째C and 598 kg/h, respectively. All diets were formulated to 3.5 Mcal/kg DE, with 0.92% lysine for d 0 to 14, and 0.76% lysine for d 14 to 28. For d 0 to 14, there was a tendency for pigs fed diets with Na2SO3 to have greater ADG (p<0.08), and pigs fed SBM to have greater ADFI (p<0.02), thus pigs fed the extruded soy products has 15% greater gain/feed than those fed SBM (p<0.007). For d 14 to 28, there were no differences in ADG or gain/feed among pigs fed diets with SBM and those fed diets with the extruded soy products (p>0.15). However, pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG than pigs fed extruded SBM, and pigs fed Na2SO3 had greater ADG and ADFI compared to those not fed Na2SO3 (p<0.02 and 0.08, respectively). The positive response in ADG and gain/feed to the addition of Na2SO3 resulted with SBM and extruded SBM treatments, and not with DEWS (interaction effect, p<0.04). Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG (p<0.01) and gain/feed (p<0.08) than pigs fed extruded SBM. Also pigs fed diets with Na2SO3 had greater ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed compared to those fed diets without Na2SO3 (p<0.002, 0.04, and 0.04, respectively). Exp. 2 was designed as a 2횞3 factorial with main effects of soy product (SBM and DEWS) and concentration of Na2SO3 (none, 7.5, and 15.0 g/kg of soy product). As in Exp. 1, all diets were formulated to 3.5 Mcal/kg DE, with 0.92% lysine for d 0 to 13, and 0.76% lysine for d 13 to 53. At a constant processing temperature (148 to 149째C, Na2SO3 increased throughput of the extruder (578, 595, and 602 kg/h for the 0, 7.5, and 15.0 g/kg additions, respectively). For d 0 to 13, treatment had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but gain/feed decreased for pigs fed SBM with increasing concentrations of Na2SO3, and increased for pigs fed DEWS with increasing concentrations of Na2SO3 (SBM vs DEWS sulfite quadratic interaction, p<0.03). For d 13 to 35, pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG (p<0.01) and gain/feed (p<0.001) than pigs fed SBM. Also, ADFI decreased and gain/feed increased with increasing concentrations of Na2SO3 (linear effects, p<0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Overall, pigs fed the diets with DEWS had greater ADG and gain/feed than pigs fed SBM (p<0.003 and 0.002, respectively), and Na2SO3 tended to decrease ADFI and increase gain/feed (linear effects, p<0.07 and 0.06, respectively). In conclusion, pigs fed DEWS had greater rate and efficiency of gain than pigs fed SBM. Also, adding Na2SO3 prior to extrusion increased yield and feed efficiency.
Keywords: Pigs; Extrusion; Soybean; Sodium Sulfite; Growth; Digestibility


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