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Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(8): 1137-1146.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.1137    Published online August 1, 2000.
Effect of Phase Feeding on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs
J. H. Lee, J. D. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Jin, In K. Han
Abstract
This study was carried out to establish an optimum number of phase feeding regimen which enable to reduce nutrients excretion without affecting growth performance and to investigate the effects of different feeding regimens on growth performance, nutrients excretion and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 120 finishing pigs (an average initial body weight of 54.3 kg) were assigned to the feeding trial and 12 pigs were assigned to the metabolic trial. Treatments included one phase (54 to 104 kg), two phase (54 to 80 and 80 to 104 kg), three phase (54 to 70, 70 to 90 and 90 to 104 kg) and four phase (54 to 65, 65 to 80, 80 to 95, 95 to 104 kg) feeding regimens. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 16% crude protein for one phase feeding regimen, 16% and 12% crude protein for two phase feeding regimen, 16%, 14% and 12% crude protein for three phase feeding regimen, and 16%, 14.7%, 13.4% and 12% crude protein for four phase feeding regimen, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in any criteria measured during the entire experimental period, pigs reared in three phase feeding regimen grew slightly faster than those reared in other feeding regimens and showed a tendency to increase ADFI during the whole experimental period. The metabolic trial indicated that there were no significant differences in DM (dry matter), CP (crude protein) and P (phosphorus) digestibilities. However, fecal nutrient excretion except P was significantly influenced by feeding regimens. DM excretion of one phase feeding group was significantly higher than that of three phase feeding group and daily fecal N (nitrogen) excretion of one phase feeding group was higher than that of other phase feeding groups (p<0.05). Three and four phase feeding regimens resulted in 12% lower fecal N and DM excretion than one phase feeding regimen. Blood urea concentrations were lower for pigs reared in two, three and four phase feeding regimens than for those reared in one phase feeding regimen (p<0.05). Three phase feeding regimen for the finishing period showed better carcass grade than one phase feeding regimen, though the difference was not significant. The tenth rib fat thickness of pigs fed on four phase feeding regimen was reduced most and there was a trend that backfat thickness decreased as the number of phases increased. Feed cost per kg weight gain was significantly low in four phase feeding group than one phase feeding group (p<0.05). In summary, it seemed that producers generally oversupply the expensive nutrients for the finishing pigs. High nutrient diets do not always guarantee high growth rate of pigs and cause more unwanted nutrient excretion. It rather seems that meeting nutrient requirements for the each growth phase is more important for the reduction of pollutants and economical pork production.
Keywords: Phase Feeding; Finishing Pigs; Growth Performances; Carcass Characteristics; Blood Urea Nitrogen; Nutrient Excretion


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