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Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(6): 761-773.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.761    Published online June 1, 2000.
Comparative Calorimetric Evaluation of Ammoniated Straw-Based Rations Supplemented with Low Levels of Untreated and Formaldehyde Treated Groundnut Cake and Fish Meal with Respect to Growing Buffalo Calves
C. M. Tiwari, S. B. Jadhao, Chandramoni, Murarilal, M. Y. Khan
Eighteen growing male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves were divided into three groups consisting of six animals each and fed three urea ammoniated wheat straw (UAS) -based rations supplemented with concentrate mixtures (roughage: concentrate ratio 58:42) containing deoiled ground nut cake, GNC (8%), formaldehyde treated GNC (8%) or fish meal (8%) to undertake comparative evaluation of these rations in terms of their CH4 production and growth (285 d duration) potential. A digestibility trial (10 d duration) was followed by a comparative calorimetric study in respiration chamber. Dry matter (DM) intake (84.3 to 89.3 g/kg W0.75d-1) did not differ between treatments. The digestibility coefficient of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral and acid detergent fiber did not differ significantly in different diets. Urinary energy loss as a percent of gross energy (GE) was not affected by diets. Average values of CH4 production were 84.3, 77.6 and 99.1 g/d and CH4 energy losses as percent of gross energy were 5.7, 5.2 and 6.1 percent on GNC, formaldehyde treated GNC and fishmeal, respectively, and did not differ significantly. When expressed per unit of digestible OM intake, CH4 production (g) was lower (p<0.05) on formaldehyde treated GNC (30.6) than on untreated GNC (30.6) and fish meal (31.9). Total ME intake and heat production were similar and hence the energy balances on different diets were similar. Nutritive value of rations in terms of digestible CP and ME were similar. Average daily gain calculated on the basis of regression of fortnights on cumulative liveweight gain in calves fed on concentrate containing unprotected GNC, protected GNC and fish meal were 437.1, 483.9 and 481.6 g, respectively. This indicated that the intake of energy was sufficient to meet the requirement of calves growing at 400 g per d. However, CP intake was around 150% of the stipulated standard (Kearl, 1982). Feed conversion ratios on unprotected GNC, protected GNC and fish meal were 11.60, 11.10 and 10.4 respectively. It was concluded that because significantly (p<0.05) low CH4 is produced on protected GNC (8%), it is very good and sustainable protein source in comparison to poor quality fish meal and untreated GNC to be used in concentrate mixture for supplementing UAS-based diets.
Keywords: Buffalo Calves; Growth; Calorimetry; CH4 Production; Ammoniated Wheat Straw; Protein Supplements
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