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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1999;12(4): 667-674.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.667    Published online June 1, 1999.
Nutrient Recycling : The European Experience - Review -
J. E. Hall
Abstract
Intensive livestock production has increased dramatically in Europe since the 1960s, particularly in Northern and Central European countries, resulting in large increases in the nutrient pollution of surface and ground waters and in atmospheric emissions of ammonia. This has arisen due to inadequate management of the large amounts manure produced, particularly where there has been insufficient land area used for efficient nutrient reuse in crop production. Nutrient pollution from intensive livestock production has progressively degraded the quality of water resources in many parts of Europe, with eutrophication of many inland and coastal waters, as well as soil acidification and ecosystem degradation. These problems have been known for many years, and although there are various international agreements on transboundary pollution, it is largely left to individual countries to set and enforce standards. Consequently, a number of different approaches are employed, although the common feature of these is to encourage farmers to use the nutrients in animal manures efficiently according to crop requirements, which also reduces the potential for accumulation in soil and subsequent loss to the environment. This paper reviews nutrient production and use in Europe and some of the strategies employed to avoid and reduce nutrient pollution.
Keywords: Europe; Livestock; Manure; Nutrients; Pollution; Slurry


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