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Animal Reproduction and Physiology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1999;12(1): 15-21.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.15    Published online February 1, 1999.
Sex Linked Developmental Rate Differences in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos Fertilized and Cultured In Vitro
S. K. Sood, M. S. Chauhan, O. S. Tomer
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of paternal sex chromosome on early development of buffalo embryos fertilized and cultured in vitro. Embryos were produced in vitro from abattoir derived buffalo oocytes. The cleaved embryos were cocultured with buffalo oviductal epithelial cells and evaluated on day 7 under the phase contrast microscope to classify development. The embryos which reached the morula / blastocyst stage were fast developing, the embryos which were at 16-32 cell stage were medium developing and the embryos below 16 cell stage were slow developing. The embryos which showed some fragmentation in the blastomeres or degenerated blastomeres, were degenerating. Sex of emberyos (n=159) was determined using PCR for amplification of a male specific BRY. 1 (301 bp) and a buffalo specific satellite DNA (216 bp) fragments. The results thus obtained show that 1) X and Y chromosome bearing sperms fertilize oocytes to give almost equal numbers of cleaved XX and XY embryos, 2) male embryos develop faster than female embryos to reach advanced stage and 3) degeneration of buffalo embryos is not linked with the paternal sex chromosome. We suggest that faster development of males is due to differential processing of X and Y chromosome within the zygote for its activation and / or differential expression of genes on paternal sex chromosome sex chromosome during development of buffalo embryos fertilized and cultured in vitro which may be attributed to a combination of genetic and environmental factor.
Keywords: Sexual Dimorphism Early Development; Sex Ratio, Embryo survival

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