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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 17(10); 2004 > Article
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2004;17(10): 1400-1410.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1400    Published online January 1, 2004.
Effect of Synchronizing Starch Sources and Protein (NPN) in the Rumen on Feed Intake, Rumen Microbial Fermentation, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows
P. Chanjula, M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, P. Rowlinson
Abstract
Eight crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to a switchback design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement to evaluate two nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources (corn meal and cassava chips) with different rumen degradability and used at two levels of NSC (55 vs. 75%) with protein source (supplied by urea in the concentrate mix). The treatments were 1) Low degradable low level of corn (55%) 2) Low degradable high level of corn (75%) 3) High degradable low level of cassava (55%) and 4) High degradable high level of cassava (75%). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2. Urea-treated rice straw was offered ad libitum as the roughage and supplement with 1 kg/hd/d cassava hay. The results revealed that total DM intake, BW and digestion coefficients of DM were not affected by either level or source of energy. Rumen fermentation parameters; NH3-N, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by source of energy, but were dramatically increased by level of NSC. Rumen microorganism populations were not affected (p>0.05) by source of energy, but fungal zoospores were greater for cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate. Milk production and milk composition were not affected significantly by diets containing either source or level of NSC, however milk fat percentage showed a trend towards higher levels for cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Likewise, income over feed, as estimated from 3.5% FCM, was higher on cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (54.0 and 51.4 US$/mo, respectively). These results indicate that feeding diets containing either cassava-based diets and/or a higher of concentrates up to 75% of DM with NPN (supplied by urea up to 4.5% of DM) can be used in dairy rations without altering rumen ecology or animal performance compared with corn-based concentrate.
Keywords: Synchronizing; Protein; Starch Sources; Cassava Chip; Corn; Rumen Degradability


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