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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(6): 861-882.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.861    Published online January 1, 2000.
The Use of Lupins in Feeding Systems - Review -
D. S. Petterson
The seed, or grain, of modern cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius, commonly known as Australian sweet lupins (ASL), is an established feed resource for the intensive animal industries of Australia, Japan, Korea and several other countries in Asia and Europe. Since the introduction of ASL to the world marketplace about 25 years ago, researchers in many countries have found them to be a valuable component of the diet of beef and dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, finfish and crustaceans. The seed of ASL contains ~32% crude protein (CP) (~35% DM basis) and 5% oil. The main storage carbohydrates in the seed are the 棺-galactans that comprise most of the cell-wall material of the kernel and the cellulose and hemicellulose of the thick seed coats. ASL seeds contain about 40% non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and a negligible amount of starch. This makes them an excellent ingredient for ruminant diets, as the risk of acidosis is very low. The seed of modern cultivars of domesticated Lupinus species contain negligible amounts of lectins and trypsin inhibitors so they do not require preheating before being used as an ingredient in feeds for monogastric species. They have a high digestibility coefficient for protein, >90% for most species, but a low energy digestibility, ~60%, which is mostly due to the high content of NSP. The low content of methionine (0.22%) and of lysine (1.46%) is typical of the legumes. The lysine availability for pigs is >70%. Lupin kernels contain ~39% CP (~42% DM basis), 6% oil and 30% NSP. They have a higher digestible energy for pigs and finfish and a higher metabolisable energy for poultry than whole seed. Commercial operations rarely achieve complete separation of kernel from hull and it is more likely that the kernel fraction, called splits or meats, will contain ~36% CP. The replacement of soybean meal or peas with ASL in cereal-based diets for most intensively reared animals, birds and fish is possible provided lysine, methionine and digestible energy levels are kept constant. This makes ASL economically competitive in many, but not all, circumstances.
Keywords: Lupins; Composition; Nutrition; Pigs; Poultry; Ruminants

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