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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Volume 2(1); 1989 > Article
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1989;2(1): 1-6.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1989.1    Published online March 1, 1989.
Nutritive values and growth response of cattle fed ammonia treated rice straw
W. J. Maeng, T. Y. Chung
Abstract
Nutritive values and fermentation rates of rice straw treated with 3% anhydrous and 3% aqueous ammonia were evaluated both in vitro and sheep metabolism trials. Daily gain, feed efficiency and feed cost per gain were also determined with growing Holstein bulls fed anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw. Crude protein was increased 2.4 fold and NDF was decreased 6.5%, but ADF and cellulose were not different between untreated and ammonia treated rice straw. An average of 35.5% of total added ammonia-N retained in the rice straw and other 64.5% was not retained in the rice straw. Ammonia treatment increased in vitro DM, NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities by 44.8%, 43.3%, 49.4% and 42.4%, respectively, and fermentation rates by 63.3%, 132.4%, 49.4% and 42.4%, respectively. In sheep metabolism trials, DM digestibilities of rice straw treated with anhydrous and aqueous ammonia were increased 22% and 36%, respectively, and digestible DM intakes by 48% and 70%, respectively in sheep fed anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw over untreated rice straw. Rumen ammonia and blood urea were considerably higher in sheep fed ammonia treated rice straw than sheep fed untreated rice straw. Daily gain of Holstein bulls was increased 20.8% and 29.9% and rice straw intakes were increased 28.4% and 44.3% in anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw over untreated rice straw. Feed conversion was improved 9.5% and 10.3% and feed cost/gain was reduced 7.1% and 9.2% respectively in anhydrous and aqueous ammonia treated rice straw group as compared with untreated rice straw group.
Keywords: Rice Straw; Anhydrous Ammonia; Aqueous Ammonia; Fermentation Rate; Feed Efficiency


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