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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0396    [Accepted] Published online October 21, 2019.
Mitochondrial DNA variation and phylogeography of native Mongolian goats
Onolragchaa Ganbold1,2  , Seung Hwan Lee1  , Woon Kee Paek3  , Munkhbaatar Munkhbayar2  , Dongwon Seo1  , Prabuddha Manjula1  , Tamir Khujuu2  , Erdenetushig Purevee2  , Jun Heon Lee1,* 
1Laboratory of Animal Molecular Genetics, Division of Animal & Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
2Mongolian National University of Education, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
3Daegu National Science Museum of Korea, Daegu, Korea
Correspondence:  Jun Heon Lee, Tel: +82-42-821-5779, Fax: +82-42-825-9754, Email: junheon@cnu.ac.kr
Received: 13 May 2019   • Revised: 5 July 2019   • Accepted: 15 September 2019
Mongolia is one of a few countries that supports over 25 million goats, but genetic diversity, demographic history, and the origin of goat populations in Mongolia have not been well studied. This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic status and population structure of Mongolian native goats (MG), as well as to discuss their origin together with other foreign breeds from different countries using hypervariable region 1 (HV1) in mtDNA Method: In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Mongolian native goat populations using a 452 base-pair long fragment of HVI of mitochondrial DNA from 174 individuals representing 12 populations. In addition, 329 previously published reference sequences from different regions were included in our phylogenetic analyses.
Investigated native Mongolian goats displayed relatively high genetic diversities. After sequencing, we found a total of 109 polymorphic sites that defined 137 haplotypes among investigated populations. Of these, haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Mongolian goats were calculated as 0.997 ±0.001 and 0.0283 ±0.002, respectively. These haplotypes clearly clustered into four haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), with the predominance of haplogroup A (90.8%). Estimates of pairwise differences (Fst) and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) values among goat populations in Mongolia showed low genetic differentiation and weak geographical structure. In addition, Kazakh, Chinese (from Huanghuai and Leizhou), and Arabian (Turkish and Baladi breeds) goats had smaller genetic differentiation compared to Mongolian goats.
In summary, we report novel information regarding genetic diversity, population structure, and origin of Mongolian goats. The findings obtained from this study reveal that abundant haplogroups (A~D) occur in goat populations in Mongolia, with high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity.
Keywords: Genetic Diversity; Mitochondrial DNA; Native Goats; Phylogenetic Relationships; The Origin

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