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Asian-Australas J Anim Sci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0946    [Accepted] Published online February 14, 2019.
Selection of plant oil as a supplemental energy source by monitoring rumen profiles and its dietary application in Thai crossbred beef cattle
Keiji Matsuba1, Apirada Padlom2, Anchalee Khongpradit2, Phoompong Boonsaen2, Prayad Thirawong2, Suriya Sawanon2, Yutaka Suzuki1, Satoshi Koike1, Yasuo Kobayashi1,* 
1Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan
2Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom, 73140, Thailand
Correspondence:  Yasuo Kobayashi, Tel: +81-11-706-2476, Fax: +81-11-706-2476, Email: kyas@anim.agr.hokudai.ac.jp
Received: 14 December 2018   • Revised: 28 January 2019   • Accepted: 30 January 2019
Abstract
Objective: The present study was conducted to select a plant oil without inhibitory effects on rumen fermentation and microbes, and to determine the optimal supplementation level of the selected oil in a series of in vitro studies for dietary application. Then, the selected oil was evaluated in a feeding study using Thai crossbred beef cattle by monitoring growth, carcass, blood and rumen characteristics.

Methods

Rumen fluid was incubated with substrates containing one of three different types of plant oil (coconut oil, palm oil and soybean oil) widely available in Thailand. The effects of each oil on rumen fermentation and microbes were monitored and the oil without a negative influence on rumen parameters was selected. Then, the dose-response of rumen parameters to various levels of the selected palm oil was monitored to determine a suitable supplementation level. Finally, an 8-month feeding experiment with the diet supplemented with palm oil was carried out using 12 Thai crossbred beef cattle to monitor growth, carcass, rumen and blood profiles.

Results

Batch culture studies revealed that coconut and soybean oils inhibited the most potent rumen cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes, while palm oil had no such negative effect on this and on rumen fermentation products at 5% or higher supplementation level. Cattle fed the diet supplemented with 2.5% palm oil showed improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) without any adverse effects on rumen fermentation. Palm oil-supplemented diet increased blood cholesterol levels, suggesting a higher energy status of the experimental cattle.
Conclusion
Palm oil had no negative effects on rumen fermentation and microbes when supplemented at levels up to 5% in vitro. Thai crossbred cattle fed the palm oil-supplemented diet showed improved FCR without apparent changes of rumen and carcass characteristics, but with elevated blood cholesterol levels. Therefore, palm oil can be used as a beneficial energy source.
Keywords: Blood Cholesterol; Feed Conversion Ratio; Palm Oil; Rumen Fermentation; Rumen Microbes
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