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Ethics Committee
and Its Guidelines

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  • Ethics Committee and Its Guidelines

1. Introduction

The AJAS ethical committee is responsible for maintaining the principal and integrity of the AJAS before, during and after the publication process. To achieve its goals, committee strongly recommends that authors must do their best to avoid misconduct whenever possible. We should keep in mind that there are different layers of misconduct from authors. As defined in the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of others and the representation of them as one셲 own and original work. Plagiarism is not limited to the text. Authors must not use any part of a manuscript, including figures and tables, from another publication without proper permission. Duties of Editors in AJAS are Referee suggestion, Publication decision, Confidentiality, Fair play, and Involvement and cooperation in investigations. Fabrication , manipulation, and falsification of data are also considered as misconduct in AJAS. Authors must adequately respond to requests from the Editors of AJAS when original data and research notes need to be verified. Roles and responsibilities in publishing including [Editor Roles and Responsibilities, Authorship and Author Responsibilities, Reviewer Roles and Responsibilities, Sponsor Roles and Responsibilities, and Relations between Editors and Publishers, Sponsoring Societies, or Journal Owners] are well described in White Paper on Publication Ethics (https://www.councilscienceeditors.org/resource-library/editorial-policies/white-paper-on-publication-ethics/).

The Guidelines on ethical issues in AJAS are based on the article 쁁est Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective (Graf et al., 2007), which verifies five different categories; [Transparency], [Promoting research integrity], [Editorial standards and processes], [Responsible publication practices], and [Ownership of ideas and expression]. Furthermore, the process for each case of the misconduct is defined in a step-by-step manner by Flowcharts (COPE, https://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

  • Appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. It is when author(s) attempt(s) to pass off someone else's work as his/her or their own. Duplicate publication, sometimes called self-plagiarism, occurs when author(s) reuse(s) substantial parts of his/her or their own published work without providing the appropriate references.
  • Making up data or results and recording or reporting them. The construction and/or addition of data, observations, or characterizations that never occurred in the gathering of data or running of experiments.
  • Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

2. Guidelines on ethical issues

2.1. Transparency

Who funded the work?
Readers have a right to know who funded a research project or the publication of a document and Research funders should be listed on all research papers. Sources of funding for research or publication should always be disclosed.

Who did the work?
The list of authors should accurately reflect who did the work. All published work should be attributed to one or more authors.

Has the work been published before?
Most journals wish to consider only work that has not been published elsewhere. One reason for this is that the scientific literature can be skewed by redundant publication, with important consequences, for example, if results are inadvertently included more than once into meta-analyses. Both journal editors and readers have a right to know whether research has been published previously.

2.2. Promoting research integrity

Research misconduct
If editors suspect research misconduct (for example, data fabrication, falsification or plagiarism), they should attempt to ensure that this is properly investigated by the appropriate authorities.

Protecting the rights of research participants/subjects
Editors should create publication policies that promote ethical and responsible research practices.

Respecting cultures and heritage
Editors should exercise sensitivity when publishing images of objects that might have cultural significance or cause offence (for example, Australian aboriginal remains held in museums, religious texts, historical events). It may be acceptable to publish images of human remains (for example, Egyptian mummies, Roman remains) so long as these considerations are respected, despite the fact that for archeological specimens it is impossible to obtain consent from the individual or their descendants.

Informing readers about research and publication misconduct
Editors should inform readers if ethical breaches have occurred.

2.3. Editorial standards and processes

Peer-review systems
Editors have a responsibility for ensuring the peer-review process is fair and should aim to minimize bias.

Peer reviewer selection and performance
Editors have a responsibility to ensure a high standard of objective, unbiased, and timely peer review.

Appeals
Authors have a right to appeal editorial decisions.

Conflicts of interest
Editors, authors, and peer reviewers have a responsibility to disclose interests that might appear to affect their ability to present or review data objectively. These include relevant financial (for example, patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fees), personal, political, intellectual, or religious interests.

Editorial independence
Editorial independence should be respected. Journal owners (both learned societies and publishers) should not interfere with editorial decisions. The relationship between the editor and the journal owner and publisher should be set out in a formal contract and an appeal mechanism for disputes should be established.

Accuracy
Journal editors have a responsibility to ensure the accuracy of the material they publish.

Academic debate
Journals should encourage academic debate.

2.4. Responsible publication practices
Editors should first work with the authors, the journal owners and/or the journal publishers (via the Journal Publishing Manager), referring to information from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Council of Science Editors (CSE), or another appropriate body if further advice is necessary.

2.5. Ownership of ideas and expression

Plagiarism and copyright
Journal editors and readers have a right to expect that submitted work is the author's own, that it has not been plagiarized (i.e. taken from other authors without permission, if permission is required) and that copyright has not been breached (for instance, figures or tables are reproduced).

Protecting intellectual property
Journal owners and authors have a right to protect their intellectual property.

Peer reviewer conduct and intellectual property
Authors are entitled to expect that peer reviewers or other individuals privy to the work an author submits to a journal will not steal their research ideas or plagiarize their work.

3. References

White Paper on Publication Ethics. CSE셲 White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications, 2012 Update (approved by the CSE Board of Directors on March 30, 2012). https://www.councilscienceeditors.org/resource-library/editorial-policies/white-paper-on-publication-ethics/

Chris Graf, Elizabeth Wager, Alyson Bowman, Suzan Fiack, Diane Scott-Lichter, and Andrew Robinson. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2007. 61(Suppl 152): 126.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1804120/ doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01230.x

COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics). Guidelines on Good Publication and Code of Conduct.
http://publicationethics.org/files/Code%20of%20conduct%20for%20publishers%20FINAL_1_0_0.pdf.

Flowcharts for misconducts

Flowcharts for misconducts explain (1) Changes in authorship (corresponding author requests addition of extra author before publication), (2) Changes in authorship (corresponding author requests removal of extra author before publication), (3) Changes in authorship (request for addition of extra author after publication), (4) Changes in authorship (request for removal of extra author after publication), (5) What to do if you suspect redundant (duplicate) publication; (suspected redundant publication in a submitted manuscript), (6) What to do if you suspect redundant (duplicate) publication; (suspected redundant publication in a published article), (7) What to do if you suspect fabricated data; (suspected fabricated data in a submitted manuscript), (8) What to do if you suspect fabricated data; (suspected fabricated data in a published article), (9) What to do if you suspect plagiarism; (suspected plagiarism in a submitted manuscript), (10) What to do if you suspect plagiarism; (suspected plagiarism in a published article), (11) What to do if you suspect an ethical problem with a submitted manuscript, (12) What to do if you suspect an ethical problem with a published article, (13) How to handle appeals about editorial decisions, (14) What to do if someone complaints about your journal, (15) What to do if a reviewer suspects undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI) in a submitted manuscript, (16) What to do if a reviewer suspects undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI) in a published article.

http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts

The best practice in the ethics of scholarly publishing and to assist editors, editorial board members, owners of journals and publishers to achieve this.

Ethics of scholarly publishing and to assist editors, editorial board members, owners of journals and publishers to achieve this.

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